King John of England

M, b. 24 December 1166, d. 19 October 1216
Father*King Henry II of England b. 5 Mar 1133, d. 6 Jul 1189
Mother*Eleanor of Aquitaine b. 1122, d. 1 Apr 1204
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationKing John of England was also known as Plantagenet.
     John (24 December 1166 – 19 October 1216[1]) was King of England from 6 April 1199 until his death. He acceded to the throne as the younger brother of King Richard I, who died without issue. John was the youngest of five sons of King Henry II of England and Eleanor, Duchess of Aquitaine, and was their second surviving son to ascend the throne; thus, he continued the line of Plantagenet or Angevin kings of England. Prior to his coronation, he was Earl of Cornwall and Gloucester, but this title reverted to the Crown once he became King. John's oldest surviving brother, Richard, became king upon the death of their father in 1189, and John was made Count of Mortain (France). When Richard refused to honour their father's wishes and surrender Aquitaine to him as well, John staged a rebellion. The rebellion failed, and John lost all potential claims to lands in France.

During his lifetime John acquired two epithets. One was "Lackland" (French: Sans Terre), because, as his father's youngest son, he did not inherit land out of his family's holdings, and because as King he lost significant territory to France.[2] The other was "Softsword" signifying his supposed lack of prowess in battle.[3]

Apart from entering popular legend as the enemy of Robin Hood, he is perhaps best-known for having acquiesced – to the barons of English nobility – to seal Magna Carta, a document which limited kingly power in England and which is popularly thought as an early step in the evolution of limited government.1 The marriage of King John of England and Isabel of Gloucester was annulled in 1199.

Child of King John of England and Adela de Warenne

Child of King John of England and Agatha de Ferrers

Children of King John of England and Isabella of Angoulême

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_of_England

Eleanor de Warenne

F
Father*John de Warenne b. 1231, d. c 29 Sep 1304
Mother*Alice de Lusignan b. 1224, d. 9 Feb 1256
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Percy.
Name VariationEleanor de Warenne was also known as Plantagenet.

Child of Eleanor de Warenne and Henry de Percy

Henry de Percy

M, d. circa August 1272
     7th Baron Percy.

Child of Henry de Percy and Eleanor de Warenne

Thomas Naunton

M, b. circa 1480, d. 1506
  • Thomas Naunton married Emma Taye.
  • Thomas Naunton was born circa 1480.
  • He died in 1506.

Child of Thomas Naunton and Emma Taye

Emma Taye

F, b. circa 1485
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Naunton.

Child of Emma Taye and Thomas Naunton

Anthony Gosnold

M, d. 1609
Father*Robert Gosnold II b. 1512, d. 1559
Mother*Mary Vesey b. 1516, d. 1559

Children of Anthony Gosnold and Dorothy Bacon

Dorothy Bacon

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Gosnold.

Children of Dorothy Bacon and Anthony Gosnold

Bartholomew Gosnold

M, b. 1572, d. 22 August 1607
Father*Anthony Gosnold d. 1609
Mother*Dorothy Bacon
  • Bartholomew Gosnold married Mary Golding.
  • Bartholomew Gosnold was born in 1572 at England.
  • He was the son of Anthony Gosnold and Dorothy Bacon.
  • Bartholomew Gosnold died on 22 August 1607 at Jamestown, Virginia.
     Bartholomew was an early explorer and settler of the "New World". He is credited with the naming of Cape Cod, in Massachusetts, which he visited in 1602 and was on the Council of the Jamestown colony, the first permanent colonial settlement in North America.

Bartholomew was trained as a lawyer, attending Cambridge University and studied law at Middle Temple where there is a record of him in 1592. This life did excite him, apparently, and he became entranced with the idea of exploring the New World. Bartholomew's first trip to the New World was an unsuccessful attempt to found a colony in Virginia, with Sir Walter Raleigh.

Upon his return to England, however, he began an effort to start a colony further north, in what later became known as New England. Funded by Sir Walter Raleigh and the Earl of Southampton, Bartholomew sailed from Falmouth on 26 March 1602 in command of the Concord. His group consisted only of the one ship and a total of twenty colonists and twelve sailors. The Concord sailed to the Azores, and from there took a direct westerly route, unusual for the time when it was more common to sail much further south. The ship made the crossing in about seven weeks, sighting land at Cape Elizabeth in Maine (lat 43 degrees). Batholomew sailed south in search of a suitable settlement and anchored just east of York Harbour on 14 May 1602. The next day he sailed further south and discovered the promontory which he named Cape Cod, rather prosaically, after the large number of cod they caught in the area. Batholomew and four others went ashore there, becoming the first Englishmen to set foot in New England.

Gosnold at Smoking Rocks, painted by William Allen Wall in 1842, depicts Bartholomew Gosnold landing at Smoking Rocks in 1602. Smoking Rocks was located on the New Bedford coast opposite Palmer Island, Sailing south around the cape, they found "many fair islands", naming one that was abundant in grapes and other fruit Martha's Vineyard (after his daughter?) and another Elizabeth's Island after the Queen. This island is now called Cuttyhunk Island. The colonists remained on the island for three weeks, going so far as to build a fort. Gosnold's first impressions were good, but the group became disillusioned by the hostility of the Indians and a scarcity of provisions, and numbering as few as twelve by some accounts, they abandoned the colony, stocked up the ship with cargo of "sassafras, cedar, furs, skins, and other commodities as were thought convenient" and returned to England, arriving in Exmouth on 23 July 1602. The small town of Gosnold in the Elizabeth Islands of Massachustess is named for Batholomew, and a 70 foot high monument to the explorer stands on the beach.

Bartholomew still had the colonist spirit, however, and spent the next few years promoting a larger colonist expedition. In 1606, the Virginia Company was formed with funding from merchants both in London and the west of England. The London merchants, with Sir Thomas Smythe front and center, were tasked with a colony south of the Hudson, while the westerners were to colonize north of the Hudson (then known as Northern Virginia). A charter to settle Virginia was obtained from King James I on 10 April 1606, the affairs of the colony to be governed by a council whose names were sealed, to be opened only on arrival in Virginia, so as to preserve naval command during the voyage. Christopher Newport was in overall command of the three colony ships, while Bartholomew captained one of them, the God Speed, and was overall second-in-command. Other leaders of the expedition were Edward Maria Wingfield, Capt. John Smith, and Captain John Ratcliffe who commanded the third ship.

In all, one hundred and five settlers set sail on 19 December 1606. Of the ninety-three whose names are known, fifty-nine were listed as "gentlemen", which explains why the colony initially had difficulty getting any work done! The voyage took much longer than usual - a storm held them up just off the coast of Kent for nearly six weeks, and then they took the southern route, more familiar to Christopher Newport, with stops at the Canaries, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Nevis, the Virgin Islands (Tortola) and Mona (near Puerto Rico).

Finally, on 26 April 1607, the fleet reached the Chesapeake Bay and the mouth of a river they named the James after the king. The settlers chose a spot about fifty miles up the river and formed the settlement of Jamestown. There they opened the council list, on which Bartholomew's name was found, and elected Edward Maria Wingfield as their president. As an aside, Bartholomew's uncle had married Ursula Naunton, whose mother was Elizabeth Wingfield - Edward Wingfield's great-aunt!

Gosnold was popular in the colony, and before returning to England, Captain Newport asked President Wingfield "how he thought himself settled in government" to which Wingfield answered "that no disturbance could endanger him or the colony, but it must be wrought either by Captain Gosnold, or Master Archer; for the one was strong with friends and followers, and could if he would; and the other was troubled with an ambitious spirit, and would if he could"

After completing some brief explorations, (and failing to find the gold he was hoping for) Newport loaded his ships with wood as cargo and returned to England on 22 June. The colonists had not prepared well and depended largely on corn obtained by trade with the Indians This supply dried up in the summer (prior to the corn harvest), provisions fell short which combined with the swampy island the colonists had settled on, led to a deadly sickness breaking out. Of the 105 colonists, fifty died by the end of the first summer. Among these was Bartholomew, who died 22 August 1607. At his burial all the ordinance in the fort was fired in his honour "with many volleys of small shot" being recorded by another colonist, George Percy. The most famous Gosnold is Bartholomew (1552-1607) who was captain of the HMS Concord. He explored the eastern seaboard of the United States in 1602 and named some of the famous landmarks including Martha’s Vineyard and Cape Cod. His intention was to found a colony there. He built the first house and the first fort in what was later to become the United States. He sailed back to England and extoled the virutes of this new land.

He returned in 1607 with, among others, his relative, his cousin Edward Maria Wingfield, to found the Jamestown Colony. Of the 105 original colonist who first settled Jamestown 50 died by the end of the first summer of a "sickness" and Bartholomew was one of these. Bartholomew Gosnold (1572–August 22, 1607) was an English lawyer, explorer, and privateer, instrumental in founding the Virginia Company of London, and Jamestown, Virginia. He is considered by the Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities (APVA) to be the "prime mover of the colonization of Virginia." Gosnold also led the first recorded European expedition to visit Cape Cod, on May 15, 1602.

He was born in Grundisburgh in Suffolk, England in 1572, and his family seat was at Otley, Suffolk. His parents were Anthony Gosnold and Dorothy Bacon. He graduated from the University of Cambridge and studied law at Middle Temple.[1]

Gosnold was a friend of Richard Hakluyt and sailed with Walter Raleigh. He obtained backing to attempt a colony in the New World and in 1602 he sailed from Falmouth in a small Dartmouth bark, the Concord, with thirty-two on board. They intended to establish a colony in New England, which was then known as Northern Virginia.

Bartholomew Gosnold pioneered a direct sailing route due west from the Azores to New England, arriving in May 1602 at Cape Elizabeth in Maine (Lat 43 degrees). He skirted the coastline for several days before anchoring in York Harbor, Maine, on May 14, 1602.

The next day, he sailed into Provincetown Harbor, where he is credited with naming Cape Cod.[2] Following the coastline for several days, he discovered Martha's Vineyard and named it after his daughter, Martha . He established a small post on Elizabeth's Island, which is now called Cuttyhunk Island and is part of the town of Gosnold. The post was abandoned when intending settlers decided to return on the ship to England since they had insufficient provisions to overwinter.

A notable account of the voyage, written by John Brereton, one of the gentlemen adventurers, was published in 1602, and this helped in popularising subsequent voyages of exploration and colonisation of the northeast seaboard of America. A second account by Gabriel Archer was not published until over 20 years later, after Gosnold's death.

Gosnold spent several years after his return to England promoting a more ambitious attempt; he obtained from King James I an exclusive charter for a Virginia Company to settle Virginia. To form the core of what would become the Virginia Colony at Jamestown, he recruited his cousin-by-marriage Edward Maria Wingfield, as well as John Smith, his brother and a cousin, in addition to members of his 1602 expedition. Gosnold himself served as vice-admiral of the expedition, and captain of the Godspeed (one of the three ships of the expedition; the other two being the Susan Constant, under Captain Christoper Newport, and the Discovery, under Captain John Ratcliffe [3]).

Gosnold also solicited the support of Matthew Scrivener, cousin of Edward Maria Wingfield. Scrivener became Acting Governor of the new Colony, but drowned in a tragic accident in 1609 along with Anthony Gosnold, Bartholomew's brother, while trying to cross to Hog Island in a storm. (Ironically, Scrivener's brother Nicholas had also drowned while a student at Eton.)

Gosnold was popular among the colonists and opposed the location of the colony at Jamestown Island; he also helped design the fort that held the initial colony. He died of dysentery and scurvy[citation needed]only four months after they landed, on August 22, 1607.1

Children of Bartholomew Gosnold and Mary Golding

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomew_Gosnold

Mary Golding

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Gosnold.

Children of Mary Golding and Bartholomew Gosnold

Paul Gosnold

M, b. 1605
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Martha Gosnold

F, b. 1597, d. 1598
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Susan Gosnold

F, b. 1602
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Frances Gosnold

M, b. 1604
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Bartholomew Gosnold

M, b. 1603
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Martha Gosnold

F, b. 1606
Father*Bartholomew Gosnold b. 1572, d. 22 Aug 1607
Mother*Mary Golding

Keen Field

M
Father*Captain Abraham Field b. 1699, d. 1774
Mother*Elizabeth Withers b. 23 Dec 1701, d. 1798

Anthony Gosnold

M, d. 1609
Father*Anthony Gosnold d. 1609
Mother*Dorothy Bacon

John Gosnold

M, d. 1554
Father*Robert Gosnold I b. 1490, d. 1572
Mother*Agnes Hill
     John Gosnold, an eminent Member of Parliament in the reign of Edward VI, and Solicitor General for a term. In this capacity, John had had a hand in the plan to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne on the death of young King Edward. John died without leaving an heir.

Katherine Gosnold

F
Father*Robert Gosnold I b. 1490, d. 1572
Mother*Agnes Hill
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Golding.

Joan Gosnold

F
Father*Robert Gosnold I b. 1490, d. 1572
Mother*Agnes Hill
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationJoan Gosnold was also known as Johan.
Name VariationJoan Gosnold was also known as Jane.
Married NameHer married name was Golding.

(?) Golding

M

Child of (?) Golding

Jonathon Golding

M
Father*(?) Golding

Children of Jonathon Golding

Arthur Golding

M, b. circa 1536, d. circa 1605
Father*Jonathon Golding
  • Arthur Golding was born circa 1536.
  • He was the son of Jonathon Golding.
  • Arthur Golding died circa 1605.
     Arthur Golding (c. 1536 – c. 1605) was an English translator.

He was the son of Jonathon Golding of Belchamp St Paul and Halsted, Essex, an auditor of the Exchequer, and was probably born in London. His half-sister, Margaret, married John de Vere, 16th Earl of Oxford. By 1549 Arthur was in the service of Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset, then Lord Protector. He matriculated as a fellow commoner at Jesus College, Cambridge in 1552.[1] He seems to have resided for some time in the house of William Cecil, Lord Burghley, in The Strand, with his nephew, the poet and popular "Shakespeare" candidate, Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, whose receiver he was, for two of his dedications are dated from Cecil House.

Golding's chief work is his translation of Ovid, written in rhyming couplets of iambic heptameter (fourteeners). The Fyrst Fower Bookes of P. Ovidius Nasos worke, entitled Metamorphosis, translated oute of Latin into Englishe meter (1565), was supplemented in 1567 by a translation of the complete poem. Strangely enough, the translator of Ovid was a man of strong Puritan sympathies, and he translated many of the works of Calvin. To his version of the Metamorphoses he prefixed a long metrical explanation of his reasons for considering it a work of edification, asking his readers to look past the heretical content of the pagan poem. He sets forth the moral which he supposes to underlie certain of the stories, and shows how the pagan machinery may be brought into line with Christian thought.

It was from Golding's pages that many of the Elizabethans drew their knowledge of classical mythology, and there is little doubt that William Shakespeare was well acquainted with the book. Oxfordian scholars such as Charlton Ogburn believe that Edward de Vere collabrated on several of Golding's most famous translations (see Shakespearean authorship).

Golding translated also the Commentaries of Caesar (1563, 1565, 1590), the history of Junianus Justinus (1564), the theological writings of Niels Hemmingsen (1569) and David Chytraeus (1570), Theodore Beza's Tragedie of Abrahams Sacrifice (1575), the De Beneficiis of Seneca the Younger (1578), the geography of Pomponius Mela (1585), Calvin's commentaries on the Psalms (1571), his sermons on the Galatians and Ephesians, on Deuteronomy and the book of Job.

He completed a translation begun by Sir Philip Sidney from Philippe de Mornay, A Worke concerning the Trewnesse of the Christian Religion (1604). His only original work is a prose Discourse on the earthquake of 1580, in which he saw a judgment of God on the wickedness of his time. He inherited three considerable estates in Essex, the greater part of which he sold in 1595. The last trace we have of Golding is contained in an order dated 25 July 1605, giving him license to print some of his works.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Golding

Margery Golding

F
Father*Jonathon Golding
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1 August 1548As of 1 August 1548,her married name was de Vere.

Children of Margery Golding and John de Vere

Edward de Vere

M
Father*John de Vere b. 1516, d. 1562
Mother*Margery Golding

John De Vere

M, b. 14 August 1499, d. 14 July 1526
Father*George De Vere
Mother*Margaret Stafford b. c 1445
     14th Earl of Oxford. John de Vere, 14th Earl of Oxford (14 August 1499 - 14 July 1526) was the son of Sir George de Vere and Margaret Stafford. He also went by the nick-name of 'Little John of Campes.'

He married Anne Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk in 1512. They had no children. He was succeeded by his second cousin, John de Vere, 15th Earl of Oxford. Both of them were great-grandsons of Richard de Vere, 11th Earl of Oxford.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_de_Vere,_14th_Earl_of_Oxford.

Anne Howard

F
Father*Thomas Howard b. 1443, d. 21 May 1524
Mother*Elizabeth Tilney b. b 1445, d. 4 Apr 1497
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1512As of 1512,her married name was De Vere.

John Holland

M, b. circa 1352, d. 16 January 1400
Father*Thomas Holland b. c 1314, d. 26 Dec 1360
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
     John Holland, 1st Duke of Exeter (c. 1352 – 16 January 1400), also Earl of Huntingdon, was an English nobleman, primarily remembered for helping cause the downfall of Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and then for conspiring against Henry IV.

He was the third son of Thomas Holland, 1st Earl of Kent and Joan "The Fair Maid of Kent", daughter of Edmund of Woodstock, a son of Edward I. His mother later married Edward, the Black Prince. Holland was thus half-brother to Richard II, to whom he remained loyal the rest of his life.

Early in Richard's reign, Holland was made a Knight of the Garter (1381). He was also part of the escort that accompanied the queen-to-be, Anne of Bohemia, on her trip to England.

Holland had a violent temper, which got him in trouble several times. The most famous incident occurred during Richard II's 1385 expedition to the Kingdom of Scotland. An archer in the service of Ralph Stafford, eldest son of the Earl of Stafford, killed one of Holland's esquires. Stafford went to find Holland to apologize, but Holland killed him as soon as he identified himself. The king had Holland's lands seized. Their mother, Joan of Kent, died during this time; it was said she died of grief at the quarrel between her sons.

Early the next year Holland reconciled with the Staffords, and had his property restored. Later in 1386 he married Elizabeth of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster and Blanche of Lancaster. He and Elizabeth then went on Gaunt's expedition to Spain, where Holland was constable of the English army. After his return to the Kingdom of England, Holland was created Earl of Huntingdon, on 2 June 1387. In 1389 he was appointed Lord Great Chamberlain for life, admiral of the fleet in the western seas, and constable of Tintagel Castle. During this time he also received large grants of land from the king.

Over the next several years he held a number of additional offices: constable of Conway Castle (1394), governor of Carlisle (1395), and then governor and then constable-general of the west marches towards Scotland. His military services were interrupted by a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in 1394 (which may be connected with his earlier troubles with the Staffords).

Holland helped the king take down Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester and Richard Fitzalan, 11th Earl of Arundel in 1397 (though it is less certain he was involved in Gloucester's death). He was rewarded by being created Duke of Exeter on September 29.

He then went with Richard on the king's 1399 Ireland expedition. When they returned the king sent him to try to negotiate with Holland's brother-in-law Henry Bolingbroke. After Henry deposed Richard and took the throne (as Henry IV), he called to account those who had been involved in the downfall of Thomas of Woodstock, and in the end took away all rewards Richard had give them after Thomas' arrest. Thus Holland became again merely Earl of Huntingdon.

Early the next year Holland entered into a conspiracy, called the Epiphany Rising, with his nephew Thomas Holland, Earl of Kent, Thomas le Despencer, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and others. Their aim was to assassinate king Henry and return Richard (who was in prison) to the throne. Their plot failed, Holland fled, but was caught near Pleshy Castle in Essex and executed by the order of Joan Fitzalan, Countess of Hereford, the mother-in-law of Henry IV, and sister of the executed Earl of Arundel who Holland had arrested some years before. Among those who witnessed the execution was Arundel's son, Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel.

Holland's lands and titles were forfeited, but eventually they were restored for his second son John Holland, 2nd Duke of Exeter.1

Child of John Holland

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Holland,_1st_Duke_of_Exeter.

Elizabeth Fitzalan

F, d. circa 1385
Father*Edmund Fitzalan b. 1327, d. 1377
Mother*Sibyl de Montagu b. b 1339
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Carew.
Married Namecirca 1373As of circa 1373,her married name was Meryett.
Married Namecirca 1373As of circa 1373,her married name was de Meriet.

Child of Elizabeth Fitzalan and Sir Leonard Carew

Sir Leonard Carew

M, b. 1342, d. 1369

Child of Sir Leonard Carew and Elizabeth Fitzalan