Margaret de Roucy

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Claremont.

Child of Margaret de Roucy and Hugh de Claremont

Hugh de Claremont


Child of Hugh de Claremont and Margaret de Roucy

Aubrey III de Vere

M, b. circa 1115, d. December 1194
Father*Aubrey II de Vere b. c 1080, d. 1141
Mother*Alice de Clare b. c 1077, d. 1163
     Aubrey de Vere III (c. 1115-Dec. 1194) was created Earl of Oxford by the empress Matilda in July 1141. He had inherited the barony of Hedingham on the death of his father Aubrey de Vere II in May 1141, when he was already Count of Guînes by right of his wife Beatrice. In July 1141 he was granted an earldom by the Empress Matilda, and was confirmed as the first earl of Oxford by her son King Henry II of England. On the annulment of his first marriage, between 1144-46, he lost Guînes. Earl Aubrey was little involved in national political affairs after this period. His attempt to divorce his third wife, Agnes of Essex, was a celebrated marriage case that Agnes appealed successfully to Pope Alexander III. In 1153 he was present with King Stephen's army at the siege of Wallingford and attested at the Treaty of Wallingford, finally signed at Westminster. Two of his sons by Agnes, Aubrey IV and Robert, became earls of Oxford. Robert, the third earl, was one of the 25 rebel barons who were to hold King John to the terms of Magna Carta. He was buried at the family mausoleum founded by his grandfather, Colne Priory, Essex.

Family The son of Aubrey de Vere II and Adeliza of Clare, earl Aubrey married three times. His marriage to Beatrice, heiress of Guînes, in 1137 made him count of Guînes by her right on the death of her grandfather but their marriage was annulled 1144-46. His second wife, Eufemia, died in 1153-4, leaving the earl still childless. He and his third wife, Agnes of Essex, had five children, four sons and a daughter: Aubrey, Roger, Robert, Henry, and Alice. The earl had eight siblings, outliving all but his two youngest brothers and youngest sister.

Lands From his father he inherited estates in Essex, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire and Middlesex. These were traditionally assessed at approximately 30 knights' fees.[1]1

Children of Aubrey III de Vere and Agnes of Essex


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_1st_Earl_of_Oxford.

Hugh Bigod

M, b. circa 1211, d. 1266
Father*Roger Bigod b. c 1144, d. 1221
Mother*Maud Marshal b. 1194, d. 27 Mar 1248
     Hugh Bigod (c.1211-1266) was Justiciar of England from 1258 to 1260.[1] He was a younger son of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk.

In 1258 the Provisions of Oxford established a baronial government of which Hugh's elder brother Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk was a leading member, and Hugh was appointed Chief Justiciar. He also had wardship of the Tower of London, and, briefly, of Dover Castle. But at the end of 1260 or in early 1261 he resigned these offices, apparently due to dissatisfaction with the new government. Thus in 1263 he joined the royalists, and was present on that side at the Battle of Lewes.

In 1243 Hugh married Joan de Stuteville, and together they had at least eight children. Their eldest son Roger, subsequently became Earl of Norfolk.[2] There is no contemporary evidence for the assertion, first recorded in the seventeenth century, that he had an earlier wife called Joanna Burnard (or Burnet or Burnell); if indeed a Hugh Bigod married Joanna, it probably was his father that did so.1

Child of Hugh Bigod and Joan de Stuteville


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Joan de Stuteville

Father*Nicholas de Stuteville
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1240As of before 1240,her married name was Wake.
Married Name1243As of 1243,her married name was Bigod.

Child of Joan de Stuteville and Hugh Wake

Child of Joan de Stuteville and Hugh Bigod

Roger Bigod

M, b. circa 1245, d. before 6 December 1306
Father*Hugh Bigod b. c 1211, d. 1266
Mother*Joan de Stuteville
     Roger Bigod (c. 1245 – bf. 6 December 1306), was 5th Earl of Norfolk.

He was the son of Hugh Bigod (Justiciar), and succeeded his uncle, Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk as earl in 1270.

This earl is the hero of a famous altercation with Edward I in 1297, which arose out of the king's command that Bigod should serve against the king of France in Gascony, while he went to Flanders. The earl asserted that by the tenure of his lands he was only compelled to serve across the seas in the company of the king himself, whereupon Edward said, "By God, earl, you shall either go or hang," to which Bigod replied, "By the same oath, O king, I will neither go nor hang."[1]

The earl gained his point, and after Edward had left for France he and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, prevented the collection of an aid for the war and forced Edward to confirm the charters in this year and again in 1301. William Stubbs says Bigod and Bohun "are but degenerate sons of mighty fathers; greater in their opportunities than in their patriotism."[2]

The earl had done good service for the King in the past. In August 1282, for instance, contemporary accounts record Bigod "going to Wales on the king's service." In his absence in Ireland, Bigod had sent letters nominating Reginald Lyvet and William Cadel to act as his attorney in Ireland for the year.[3] Some scholars have wondered how English lords like Bigod and the de Clares kept such tight hold on their Irish lands during a time when the English grip on Ireland was starting to fade. Apparently part of the secret was delegation of authority, as in this case by the earl to his lieutenants Lyvet and Cadel.[4][5]

Roger married first Alina Basset, daughter of the justiciar Philip Basset (and widow of Hugh Despenser), and secondly Alice d'Avesnes, daughter of John II d'Avesnes, count of Hainaut.

In 1302 the elderly and childless Bigod surrendered his earldom to the king and received it back entailed to the heirs of his body. This had the effect of disinheriting his brother John, and so, when the earl died without issue in December 1306, his title became extinct and his estates reverted to the crown, and were eventually bestowed on Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.[6]1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_5th_Earl_of_Norfolk.

Roger Bigod

M, b. circa 1209, d. 1270
Father*Roger Bigod b. c 1144, d. 1221
Mother*Maud Marshal b. 1194, d. 27 Mar 1248
     Roger Bigod (c. 1209 – 1270), was 4th Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England.

He was the son of Hugh Bigod, and Matilda, a daughter of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and Marshal of England. After the death of his father in 1225 Roger became the ward of William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury. After his marriage to Isabella, daughter of William the Lion, King of Scotland, he was a ward of his new brother-in-law, Alexander II of Scotland until 1228, when, although still under-age, he succeeded to his father's estates (including Framlingham Castle). He did not, however, receive his father's title until 1233.

After the death without male heirs of the last of his mother's brothers, Roger obtained the office of Marshal of England in 1246. With his younger brother Hugh Bigod (Justiciar), he was prominent among the barons who wrested the control of the government from the hands of Henry III and assisted Simon de Montfort, in what became the Second Barons' War.

Roger had no children, and was succeeded by his nephew, also named Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_4th_Earl_of_Norfolk.

King Henry II of England

M, b. 5 March 1133, d. 6 July 1189
Father*Geoffrey V of Anjou b. 24 Aug 1113, d. 7 Sep 1151
Mother*Empress Matilda of England b. c 7 Feb 1102, d. 10 Sep 1167
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationKing Henry II of England was also known as Plantagenet.
     Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England. Henry was the first to use the title "King of England" (as opposed to "King of the English").

He is also known as Henry Curtmantle and Henry Fitz-Empress.

Henry II was born in Le Mans, France, on 5 March 1133.[1] His father, Geoffrey V of Anjou (Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Fulk of Jerusalem), was Count of Anjou and Count of Maine. His mother, Empress Matilda, was a claimant to the English throne as the daughter of Henry I (1100–1135), son of William The Conqueror, Duke of Normandy. His own claim to the throne was strengthened by his descent from both the English Saxon kings and the kings of Scotland through his maternal grandmother Matilda of Scotland, whose father was Malcolm III of Scotland and whose mother was Margaret of Wessex (Saint Margaret of Scotland), grand-daughter of Edmund Ironside.

He spent his childhood in his father's land of Anjou. At the age of nine, Robert of Gloucester took him to England, where he received education from Master Matthew at Bristol, with the assistance of Adelard of Bath and possibly Geoffrey of Monmouth. In 1144, he was returned to Normandy where his education was continued by William of Conches.[2]

On 18 May 1152, at Poitiers,[3] at the age of 19, Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine. The wedding was "without the pomp or ceremony that befitted their rank,"[4] partly because only two months previously Eleanor's marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Their relationship, always stormy, eventually disintegrated: after Eleanor encouraged her children to rebel against their father in 1173, Henry had her placed under house arrest, where she remained for fifteen years.[5]1

Children of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Ermengarde de Beaumont

F, b. circa 1170, d. 12 February 1233
Father*Richard I de Beaumont
Mother*Constance FitzRoy
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1186As of 1186,her married name was of Scotland.
     Ermengarde de Beaumont was Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Scotland.

Ermengarde was born c. 1170 to Richard I, Viscount de Beaumont and his wife Constance FitzRoy, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England.

She married William I of Scotland at Woodstock Palace on 5 September 1186. They had four children:

Margaret of Scotland (1193 - 1259). Married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
Isabella of Scotland (1195 - 1253). Married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
Alexander II of Scotland (1198 - 1249).
Marjorie of Scotland (1200 - 1244). Married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
She died on 12 February 1233/1234, and was buried at Balmerino Abbey, Fife.1

Children of Ermengarde de Beaumont and King William I of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Richard I de Beaumont


Child of Richard I de Beaumont and Constance FitzRoy

Constance FitzRoy

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Beaumont.

Child of Constance FitzRoy and Richard I de Beaumont

Henry I of England

M, b. circa 1068, d. 1 December 1135
Father*William I of England b. c 1027, d. 9 Sep 1087
Mother*Matilda of Flanders b. c 1031, d. 2 Nov 1083
     Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.1

Children of Henry I of England and Isabel Beaumont

Child of Henry I of England

Children of Henry I of England and Lady Sybilla Corbet

Children of Henry I of England and Princess Matilda of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Isabel Hedwig of England

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Mother*Isabel Beaumont b. c 1102, d. c 1172

Matilda FitzRoy

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Mother*Isabel Beaumont b. c 1102, d. c 1172
     Maud, Abbess of Montivilliers was a natural daughter of Henry I of England and his young mistress Isabel de Beaumont (ca 1102 - ca 1172), herself a sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Born Matilda Fitzroy, her maternal grandparents were Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth of Vermandois. She was a half-sister of Richard "Strongbow" de Clare, her mother's son through a marriage to Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and of the Empress Matilda, who apparently valued her company and advice. Perhaps due to their closeness, Matilda or "Maud" is called the Sister of the Empress Matilda.

She was the abbess at the Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Montivilliers, and for that reason is best known as Maud of Montivilliers.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Robert de Beaumont

M, b. 1104, d. 5 April 1168
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118
Mother*Elizabeth of Vermandois b. c 1081, d. 13 Feb 1131
     Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 – 5 April 1168) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.

The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French).

Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois. He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont. There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey. They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy, to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119, when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals. Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.1

Children of Robert de Beaumont and Amica de Gael


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_2nd_Earl_of_Leicester.

Isabella of Scotland

F, b. 1195, d. 1253
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Bigod.

Margaret of Scotland

F, b. 1193, d. 1259
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1221As of 1221,her married name was de Burgh.

Child of Margaret of Scotland and Hubert de Burgh

Alexander II of Scotland

M, b. 1198, d. 1249
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAlexander II of Scotland was also known as King Alexander II of Scots.
     Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim) (24 August 1198 – 6 July 1249), King of Scots, was the only son of the Scottish king William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont. He was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and spent time in England (John of England knighted him at Clerkenwell Priory in 1213) before succeeding to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214, being crowned at Scone on 6 December the same year.

The year after his accession the clans Meic Uilleim and MacHeths, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt; but loyalist forces speedily quelled the insurrection.

In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John of England, and led an army into the Kingdom of England in support of their cause. The Scottish Army of Alexander II reached the south coast of England at the port of Dover awaiting the arrival of the French Army under the Dauphin. Alexander and the Dauphin, with their forces joined the English barons, when they signed Magna Carta. But King John died and the Pope and the English aristocracy changed their attitude, which meant the French army returned home shortly after taking London and the Scottish army returned to Scotland. Peace between John's youthful son Henry III of England and the French prince Louis VIII of France and Alexander followed.

Diplomacy further strengthened the reconciliation by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joan of England on 18 June or 25 June 1221.

The next year marked the subjection of the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll. Royal forces crushed a revolt in Galloway in 1235 without difficulty; nor did an invasion attempted soon afterwards by its exiled leaders meet with success. Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties. The two kingdoms, however, settled this dispute by a compromise in 1237. This was the Treaty of York which defined the boundary between the two kingdoms as running between the Solway Firth (in the west) and the mouth of the River Tweed (in the east).

Joan died in March, 1238 in Essex, and in the following year, 1239, Alexander remarried. His second wife was Marie de Coucy. The marriage took place on 15 May 1239, and produced one son, the future Alexander III, born in 1241.

A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries; but the prompt action of Alexander in anticipating his attack, and the disinclination of the English barons for war, compelled him to make peace next year at Newcastle. Alexander now turned his attention to securing the Western Isles, which still owed a nominal allegiance to Norway. He successively attempted negotiations and purchase, but without success. Alexander next attempted to persuade Ewen, the son of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, to sever his allegiance to Haakon IV of Norway. Ewen rejected these attempts, and Alexander sailed forth to compel him.

But on the way he suffered a fever at the Isle of Kerrera in the Inner Hebrides, and died there in 1249. He was buried at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire. His son Alexander III succeeded him as King of Scots.1

Child of Alexander II of Scotland and Marie de Coucy


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Marjorie of Scotland

F, b. 1200, d. 1244
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1 August 1235As of 1 August 1235,her married name was Marshal.

Gilbert Marshal

M, b. 1194, d. 27 June 1241
Father*William Marshal b. 1146, d. 14 May 1219
Mother*Isabel de Clare b. 1172, d. 1220
     Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke (1194 – 27 June 1241) was the third son of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke, the daughter of Richard de Clare.

Gilbert acceded to the title of Earl of Pembroke on 11 June 1234, on the death of his elder brother Richard who had died childless.

He was married on 1 August 1235 in Berwick-upon-Tweed to Marjorie of Scotland (1200 - 17 November 1244), daughter of King William of Scotland. Their marriage was childless. By an unknown mistress he had one illegitimate daughter, Isabel, who was married to Rhys ap Maeldon Fychan.[1]

He was accidentally killed on 27 June 1241 while in a tournament, which King Henry III had expressely forbidden, as he did not want any of his subjects killing one another in sport.[2] Gilbert was thrown from his horse and his foot was caught in the stirrup, thus he was dragged for some distance on the ground and died from the injuries he had received. He was buried at Temple Church next to his father. His title was passed to his younger brother Walter a year after his death. Walter was not immediately confirmed as earl and Earl Marshal due to the King's anger at Walter's disobedience of royal orders as he had also attended the tournament which had killed Gilbert.[3]1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_4th_Earl_of_Pembroke.

Joan of England

F, b. 22 July 1210, d. 4 March 1238
Father*King John of England b. 24 Dec 1166, d. 19 Oct 1216
Mother*Isabella of Angoulême b. 1188, d. 31 May 1246
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameJune 1221As of June 1221,her married name was of Scotland.
     Joan of England, Queen Consort of Scotland (22 July 1210 – 4 March 1238) was the eldest legitimate daughter and third child of John of England and Isabella of Angouleme.

Joan was brought up in the court of Hugh X of Lusignan who was promised to her in marriage from an early age, as compensation for him being jilted by her mother Isabella of Angouleme, however on the death of John of England, Isabella decided she should marry him herself and Joan was sent back to England, where negotiations for her hand with Alexander II of Scotland were taking place.

She and Alexander married on 21 June 1221, at York Minster[1]. Alexander was twenty-three. Joan was ten, almost eleven. They had no children. Joan died in her brother's arms at Havering-atte-Bower in 1238, and was buried at Tarrant Crawford Abbey in Dorset[2].

Nothing now remains of this church; the last mention of it is before the Reformation.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_Queen_consort_of_Scotland.

Marie de Coucy

Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name15 May 1239As of 15 May 1239,her married name was of Scotland.

Alexander III of Scotland

Father*Alexander II of Scotland b. 1198, d. 1249
Mother*Marie de Coucy

Hubert de Burgh

M, b. before 1180, d. before 5 May 1243
     Hubert de Burgh (before 1180 – before 5 May 1243) was Earl of Kent, Justiciar of England and Ireland, and one of the most influential men in England during the reigns of John and Henry III.

De Burgh came from a minor gentry family about which little is known. He was a brother of William de Burgh, Governor of Limerick. The relationship between Hubert de Burgh and the later de Burghs Earl of Ulster and Lords of Connaught is not clear. They descend from William de Burgh (c. 1160?–1204) but the relationship between Hubert and William has never been clearly verified; it is possible that they were full or half brothers, but may have been cousins.

He was a minor official in the household of Prince John in 1197, and became John's chamberlain the next year. He continued as John's chamberlain when the latter became king in 1199.1

Child of Hubert de Burgh and Margaret of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_1st_Earl_of_Kent.

Margaret de Burgh

F, b. circa 1222, d. 1237
Father*Hubert de Burgh b. b 1180, d. b 5 May 1243
Mother*Margaret of Scotland b. 1193, d. 1259
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationMargaret de Burgh was also known as Megotta.
Married Namecirca 1236As of circa 1236,her married name was De Clare.

Floris III of Holland

M, b. 1141, d. 1 August 1190
     Floris III of Holland (1141 – August 1, 1190), Count of Holland from 1157 to 1190. He was a son of Dirk VI and Sophie of Luxemburg, heiress of Bentheim.

On September 28, 1162 he married Ada, sister of king William I of Scotland, also known as William the Lion. The county of Holland adopted from him the rampant lion in the coat of arms and the name of William.

Floris III was a loyal vassal to Frederick I Barbarossa. He accompanied the emperor on two expeditions to Italy in 1158 and 1176-1178. Frederick thanked him by making Floris part of the imperial nobility.

The emperor gave Floris the toll right of Geervliet, the most important toll station in Holland at that time. This was actually the legalisation of an existing situation, because the counts of Holland had charged tolls illegally since the start of the 11th century.

Many farmers came to Holland to turn the swamps into agricultural lands. Dikes and dams were build and the border between Holland and the bishopric of Utrecht had to be determined. There was a dispute between Floris and the bishop of Utrecht about a new dam in the Rhine at Zwammerdam in 1165, which had to be settled by emperor Frederick. The brother of Floris, Baldwin became bishop of Utrecht in 1178.

War broke out between Flanders and Holland. Count Philip of Flanders wanted to have Zeeland. Floris was captured in Brugge and had to accept Flemish overlordship in Zeeland as ransom in 1167.

During his reign Floris III had troubles with West Friesland and a war with Philip count of Flanders concerning their respective rights in West Zeeland, in which he was beaten. In 1170 a great flood caused immense devastation in the north and helped to form the Zuider Zee.

In 1189 Floris accompanied Frederick Barbarossa upon the third Crusade, of which he was a distinguished leader. He died in 1190 at Antioch of pestilence and was buried there.

Two sons of Floris III became Count of Holland: Dirk VII in 1190 and William I in 1203.

He married 28 August 1162 Ada of Huntingdon, daughter of Henry of Scotland, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon and Ada de Warenne.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_Count_of_Holland.

Lady Joan (?)

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was ab Iorwerth.

Children of Lady Joan (?) and Prince Llywelyn the Great ab Iorwerth

Gwladus Ddu

F, b. circa 1206, d. 1251
Father*Prince Llywelyn the Great ab Iorwerth b. c 1173, d. 11 Apr 1240
Mother*Lady Joan (?)
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameNovember 1215As of November 1215,her married name was de Braose.
Married Name1230As of 1230,her married name was de Mortimer.
     Gwladus Ddu, ("Gwladus the Dark"), full name Gwladus ferch Llywelyn (died 1251) was a Welsh noblewoman who was a daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd and married two Marcher lords.

Sources differ as to whether Gwladus was Llywelyn's legitimate daughter by his wife Joan or an illegitimate daughter by Tangwystl Goch. Some sources say that Joan gave her lands to Gwladus, which suggests, but does not prove, the former. Gwladus is recorded in Brut y Tywysogion as having died at Windsor in 1251.

She married firstly, Reginald de Braose, Lord of Brecon and Abergavenny in about 1215, but they are not known to have had any children. After Reginald's death in 1228 she was probably the sister recorded as accompanying Dafydd ap Llywelyn to London in 1229.
She married secondly, Ralph de Mortimer of Wigmore about 1230. Ralph died in 1246, and their son, Roger de Mortimer, inherited the lordship.

Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore, in 1247, married Maud de Braose, by whom he had seven children.
Hugh de Mortimer
John de Mortimer
Peter de Mortimer.1

Children of Gwladus Ddu and Ralph de Mortimer


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Ralph de Mortimer

M, b. before 1198, d. before 2 October 1246
Father*Roger de Mortimer b. b 1153, d. b 8 Jul 1214
Mother*Isabel de Ferrers d. b 29 Apr 1252
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationRalph de Mortimer was also known as Ranulph.
     Ranulph or Ralph de Mortimer (before 1198 to before 2 October 1246) was the second son of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers of Wigmore Castle in Herefordshire He succeeded his elder brother before 23 November 1227 and built Cefnllys and Knucklas castles in 1240.

In 1230, Ralph married Princess Gwladus, daughter of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth. They had the following children:

Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer, married Maud de Braose and succeeded his father.
Hugh de Mortimer
John de Mortimer
Peter de Mortimer.1

Children of Ralph de Mortimer and Gwladus Ddu


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Roger de Mortimer

M, b. before 1153, d. before 8 July 1214
Father*Hugh de Mortimer d. 26 Feb 1181
Mother*Matilda le Meschin
     Roger de Mortimer (died before 8 July 1214) was a medieval marcher lord, residing at Wigmore Castle in the English county of Herefordshire. He was the son of Hugh de Mortimer (d. 26 February 1181 and Matilda Le Meschin. He was born before 1153

Roger would appear to have been of age in 1174 when he fought for King Henry II against the rebellion of his son, Henry. In 1179 Roger was instrumental in the killing of Cadwallon ap Madog, the prince of Maelienydd and Elfael, both of which Mortimer coveted. He was imprisoned until June 1182 at Winchester for this killing.

He had married Isabel (d. before 29 April 1252), the daughter of Walchelin de Ferriers of Oakham Castle in Rutland before 1196. With Isabel, Roger had three sons and a daughter:

Hugh de Mortimer (d.1227)
Ralph de Mortimer (d.1246).
Philip Mortimer
Joan Mortimer (d.1225) - married May 1212 to Walter de Beauchamp[1]
He is often wrongly stated to have been the father of Robert Mortimer of Richards Castle (died 1219) - married Margary de Say[2], daughter of Hugh de Say. This Robert was born before 1155 and therefore could not have been a son of Roger.

In 1195 Roger, with the backing of troops sent by King Richard I invaded Maelienydd and rebuilt Cymaron Castle. In 1196 he joined forces with Hugh de Say of Richards Castle and fought and lost the battle of New Radnor against Rhys ap Gruffydd, allegedly losing some forty knights and an innumerable number of foot in the fight. By 1200 he had conquered Maelienydd and issued a new charter of rights to Cwmhir Abbey. In the summer of 1214 he became gravely ill and bought the right for his son to inherit his lands while he still lived from King John. He died before 8 July 1214.1

Children of Roger de Mortimer and Isabel de Ferrers


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,