James II of England

M, b. 14 October 1633, d. 16 September 1701
Father*King Charles I Stewart b. 19 Nov 1600, d. 30 Jan 1649
Mother*Henrietta Maria of France b. 25 Nov 1609, d. 10 Sep 1669
     James II & VII (14 October 1633 – 16 September 1701)[2] was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII,[1] from 6 February 1685. He was the last Catholic monarch to reign over the Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland. Increasingly Britain's political and religious leaders opposed him as too pro-French, too pro-Catholic, and too much of an absolute monarch. When he produced a Catholic heir, the tension exploded and the leaders called on William III of Orange (his son-in-law and nephew) to land an invasion army from the Netherlands. James fled England (and thus abdicated) in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.[3] He was replaced by William of Orange who became king as William III, ruling jointly with his wife (James's daughter) Mary II. Thus William and Mary, both Protestants, became joint rulers in 1689. James made one serious attempt to recover his crowns, when he landed in Ireland in 1689 but, after the defeat of the Jacobite forces by the Williamite forces at the Battle of the Boyne in the summer of 1690, James returned to France. He lived out the rest of his life as a pretender at a court sponsored by his cousin and ally, King Louis XIV.

James is best known for his belief in absolute monarchy and his attempts to create religious liberty for his subjects. Both of these went against the wishes of the English Parliament and of most of his subjects. Parliament, opposed to the growth of absolutism that was occurring in other European countries, as well as to the loss of legal supremacy for the Church of England, saw their opposition as a way to preserve what they regarded as traditional English liberties. This tension made James's four-year reign a struggle for supremacy between the English Parliament and the Crown, resulting in his deposition, the passage of the English Bill of Rights, and the Hanoverian succession.1

Child of James II of England

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_II_of_England

Henrietta Maria of France

F, b. 25 November 1609, d. 10 September 1669
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1625As of 1625,her married name was Stewart.
     Henrietta Maria of France (French: Henriette Marie de France); (25 November[1] 1609 – 10 September 1669) was the Queen consort of England, Scotland and Ireland as the wife of King Charles I.

She was the mother of two kings, Charles II and James II, and was grandmother to Mary II, William III, and Anne of Great Britain.

Like her elder sister Elisabeth, Henrietta Maria was known to be quite attractive in her youth. Henrietta Maria was the daughter of King Henry IV of France (Henry III of Navarre) and his second wife, Marie de' Medici. She was born at the Palais du Louvre on 25 November 1609, but some historians give her a birthdate of 26 November. In England, where the Julian calendar was still in use, her date of birth is often recorded as 16 November. Henrietta Maria was brought up as a Roman Catholic. As the daughter of the Bourbon king of France, she was a Fille de France and a member of the House of Bourbon. She was the youngest sister of the future King Louis XIII of France. Her father was assassinated on 14 May 1610, in Paris, before she was a year old; her mother was banished from the royal court in 1617.

After her older sister Christine Marie married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy, in 1619, Henriette Marie took on the highly prestigious style of Madame Royale; this style was used by the most senior royal princess at the French court.1

Children of Henrietta Maria of France and King Charles I Stewart

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henrietta_Maria_of_France

Henrietta FitzJames

F
Father*James II of England b. 14 Oct 1633, d. 16 Sep 1701

Eleanor Strongbow

F, b. 1318, d. 1355
Father*King Edward II of England b. 25 Apr 1284, d. 21 Sep 1327
Mother*Isabella de France b. 1292, d. 1358
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Stradling.

Child of Eleanor Strongbow and (?) Stradling

(?) Stradling

M

Child of (?) Stradling and Eleanor Strongbow

Edward Stradling

M, b. 1345, d. 1367
Father*(?) Stradling
Mother*Eleanor Strongbow b. 1318, d. 1355

Child of Edward Stradling

William Stradling

M, b. 1375, d. 1412
Father*Edward Stradling b. 1345, d. 1367
  • William Stradling was born in 1375.
  • He was the son of Edward Stradling.
  • William Stradling died in 1412.

Agnes Capet

F, b. 1260, d. 1327
Father*Louis IX de France b. 25 Apr 1214, d. 25 Aug 1270
Mother*Marguerite de Provence b. 1221, d. 1295
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Bourgogne.

Child of Agnes Capet and (?) De Bourgogne

(?) De Bourgogne

M

Child of (?) De Bourgogne and Agnes Capet

Jeanne De Bourgogne

F, b. 1293, d. 1338
Father*(?) De Bourgogne
Mother*Agnes Capet b. 1260, d. 1327
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Zahringen.

Child of Jeanne De Bourgogne and (?) Zahringen

(?) Zahringen

M

Child of (?) Zahringen and Jeanne De Bourgogne

Adelheid Zahringen

F
Father*(?) Zahringen
Mother*Jeanne De Bourgogne b. 1293, d. 1338
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Von Tierstein.

Child of Adelheid Zahringen and (?) Von Tierstein

(?) Von Tierstein

M

Child of (?) Von Tierstein and Adelheid Zahringen

Bernhard Von Tierstein

M, b. 1370, d. 1437
Father*(?) Von Tierstein
Mother*Adelheid Zahringen

James I of Aragon

M, b. 2 February 1208, d. 27 July 1276
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationJames I of Aragon was also known as James I the Conqueror.
     James I the Conqueror (Catalan: Jaume el Conqueridor, Aragonese: Chaime lo Conqueridor, Spanish: Jaime el Conquistador, Occitan: Jacme lo Conquistaire; 2 February 1208 – 27 July 1276) was the King of Aragon, Count of Barcelona, and Lord of Montpellier from 1213 to 1276. His long reign saw the expansion of the Crown of Aragon on all sides: into Valencia to the south, Languedoc to the north, and the Balearic Islands to the east. By a treaty with Louis IX of France, he wrested the county of Barcelona from nominal French suzerainty and integrated it into his crown. His part in the Reconquista was similar in Mediterranean Spain to that of his contemporary Ferdinand III of Castile in Andalusia.

As a legislator and organiser, he occupies a significant place among the Spanish kings. James compiled the Libre del Consulat de Mar,[1] which governed maritime trade and helped establish Aragonese supremacy in the western Mediterranean. He was an important figure in the development of Catalan, sponsoring Catalan literature and writing a quasi-autobiographical chronicle of his reign: the Llibre dels fets.1

Child of James I of Aragon and Yolanda of Hungary

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_I_of_Aragon

Yolanda of Hungary

F, b. circa 1216, d. 1253
Father*Andrew II of Hungary b. c 1177, d. 21 Sep 1235
Mother*Yolande de Courtenay b. c 1200, d. 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationYolanda of Hungary was also known as Violant.
Married Name1235As of 1235,her married name was of Aragon.
     Violant of Hungary (Esztergom, Kingdom of Hungary, c. 1216 – 1253) was Queen consort of James I of Aragon. She is also called Jolánta in Hungarian, Iolanda or Violant d'Hongria in Catalan and Yolanda or Violante de Hungría in Spanish.

Violant was a daughter of Andrew II of Hungary and Violant of Courtenay. Her paternal grandparents were Béla III of Hungary and his first wife Agnes of Antioch. Her maternal grandparents were Peter II of Courtenay and his second wife Yolanda of Flanders.

Violant was a half-sister of Anne Marie, Empress of Bulgaria, Béla IV of Hungary, Saint Elisabeth of Hungary and Coloman of Lodomeria.

Violant's mother died in 1233, when Violant was seventeen years old. Her father remarried, to Beatrice d'Este, they had a son called Stephen.

Violant married James I in 1235, being his second wife. By the marriage, Violant became Queen Consort of Aragon. James already had one son, Alfonso by his first marriage to Eleanor of Castile. James however divorced Eleanor and decided to remarry, he chose Violant.[1][2]

James and Violant had ten children.1

Child of Yolanda of Hungary and James I of Aragon

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Violant_of_Hungary

Maria of Brabant

F, b. 13 May 1254, d. 10 January 1321
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name21 August 1274As of 21 August 1274,her married name was de France.
     Marie of Brabant (French: Marie de Brabant; 13 May 1254 – 10 January 1321) was Queen consort of France.

Marie was born in Leuven, Brabant. She was a daughter of Henry III, Duke of Brabant, and Adelaide of Burgundy, daughter of Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy.

Marie's paternal grandparents were Henry II, Duke of Brabant, and his wife Marie of Hohenstaufen. Her maternal grandparents were Hugh IV, Duke of Burgundy, and his first wife Yolande of Dreux. Marie's siblings included Henry IV, Duke of Brabant, and John I, Duke of Brabant.

Marie married on 24 June 1275, to Philip III of France. This was Philip's second marriage, after the death of his first wife, Isabella of Aragon. Isabella had already given birth to three surviving sons: Louis, Philip and Charles.

Philip was under the strong influence of his mother, the dowager Queen of France, Margaret of Provence and his minion, surgeon and chamberlain (Chambellan) Pierre de La Broce (or Pierre de Brosse). Not being French, Marie stood out at the French court.

In 1276, Philip's son and heir, Louis died, under suspicious circumstances. Marie was suspected of ordering him to be poisoned. La Brosse, who was also suspected, was imprisoned and later executed for the murder. Margaret suspected Marie of ordering the death of Louis and Philip did seem to agree more with his mother than his wife.

After the death of Philip III in 1285, Marie lost her political influence, and dedicated her life to her three children. Her stepson, Philip was crowned king of France, as Philip IV, on 6 January 1286 in Reims. Marie lived right through Philip IV's reign and she had outlived all three children.1

Child of Maria of Brabant and Philip The Bold de France

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maria_of_Brabant

Andrew II of Hungary

M, b. circa 1177, d. 21 September 1235
  • Andrew II of Hungary married Yolande de Courtenay.
  • Andrew II of Hungary was born circa 1177.
  • He died on 21 September 1235.

Child of Andrew II of Hungary and Yolande de Courtenay

Yolande de Courtenay

F, b. circa 1200, d. 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Hungary.
Name VariationYolande de Courtenay was also known as Violant.
  • Yolande de Courtenay married Andrew II of Hungary.
  • Yolande de Courtenay was born circa 1200.
  • She died in 1233.

Child of Yolande de Courtenay and Andrew II of Hungary

Louis I De Bourbon

M

Child of Louis I De Bourbon and Mary of Avesnes

Mary of Avesnes

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Bourbon.

Child of Mary of Avesnes and Louis I De Bourbon

Mahaut of Chatillon

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Valois.

Children of Mahaut of Chatillon and Charles De Valois

Blanche De Valois

F, b. 1316, d. 1348
Father*Charles De Valois b. 1270, d. 1325
Mother*Mahaut of Chatillon
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1342As of before 1342,her married name was of Bohemia.

Charles IV of Bohemia

M
     Charles IV (Czech: Karel IV., German: Karl IV, Latin: Carolus IV; 14 May 1316 – 29 November 1378), born Wenceslaus (Václav), was the second king of Bohemia from the House of Luxembourg, and Holy Roman Emperor.

He was the eldest son and heir of John the Blind, who died on 26 August 1346, thus Charles inherited the County of Luxembourg and the Kingdom of Bohemia. On 2 September 1347 Charles was crowned as the king of Bohemia.

On 11 July 1346 Prince-electors had elected him King of the Romans (rex Romanorum) in opposition to Emperor Louis IV. Charles was crowned on 26 November 1346 in Bonn. After his opponent had died, he was re-elected in 1349 (17 June) and crowned (25 July) King of the Romans. In 1355 he was also crowned King of Italy on 6 January and Holy Roman Emperor on 5 April. With his coronation as King of Burgundy, delayed until 4 June 1365, he became the personal ruler of all the kingdoms of the Holy Roman Empire.1 Holy Roman Emperor.

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_IV,_Holy_Roman_Emperor.

Isabeau of Bavaria

F, b. circa 1371, d. 24 September 1435
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name17 July 1385As of 17 July 1385,her married name was de France.

Child of Isabeau of Bavaria and Charles VI de France

King Henry V of England

M, b. 1387, d. 31 August 1422
     Henry V (1386–87[1][2] – 31 August 1422) was King of England from 1413 until his death. From an unassuming start, his military successes in the Hundred Years' War, culminating with his famous victory at the Battle of Agincourt, saw him come close to uniting the realms of England and France under his rule.

Henry was born in the tower above the gatehouse of Monmouth Castle, son of Henry of Bolingbroke, later Henry IV, and sixteen-year-old Mary de Bohun. Two dates are suggested: 9 August or 16 September, in either 1386 or 1387.[1][2] At the time of his birth during the reign of Richard II, Henry was not in line to succeed to the throne, preceded by the king and possibly another collateral line of heirs.

Upon the exile of Henry's father in 1398, Richard II took the boy into his own charge and treated him kindly. The young Henry accompanied King Richard to Ireland, and while in the royal service, he visited the castle at Trim in Meath, the ancient meeting place of the Irish Parliament. In 1399, the Lancastrian usurpation brought Henry's father to the throne and Henry was recalled from Ireland into prominence as heir to the kingdom of England. He was created Prince of Wales at his father's coronation. He was created Duke of Lancaster on 10 November 1399, the third person to hold the title that year. His other titles were Duke of Cornwall, Earl of Chester, and Duke of Aquitaine. A contemporary record notes that during that year Henry spent time at The Queen's College, Oxford, under the care of his uncle Henry Beaufort, the Chancellor of the university.[3]

From October 1401, the administration was conducted in his name.[citation needed] Less than three years later, Henry was in command of part of the English forces—he led his own army into Wales against Owain Glyndwr and joined forces with his father to fight Harry Hotspur at Shrewsbury in 1403.[4] It was there that the sixteen-year-old prince was almost killed by an arrow which became stuck in his face. An ordinary soldier might have died from such a wound, but Henry had the benefit of the best possible care. Over a period of several days John Bradmore, the royal physician, treated the wound with honey to act as an antiseptic, crafted a special tool to screw into the broken arrow shaft and thus extract the arrow without doing further damage, and then flushed the wound with alcohol. The operation was successful, but it left Henry with permanent scars which would serve as evidence of his experience in battle.[5]1

Child of King Henry V of England and Catherine De Valois

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_V_of_England

Thomas Nevill

M, b. circa 1480, d. 1542
Father*George Nevill b. 1440, d. 20 Sep 1492
Mother*Margaret Fenne b. 1444, d. 28 Sep 1485
     Thomas Nevill was Speaker of the House of Commons of England between February 1515 - December 1515.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Nevill

Richard Nevill

M, b. before 1485, d. circa 1515
Father*George Nevill b. 1440, d. 20 Sep 1492
Mother*Margaret Fenne b. 1444, d. 28 Sep 1485

Jane Nevill

F, b. before 1485, d. circa 1538
Father*George Nevill b. 1440, d. 20 Sep 1492
Mother*Margaret Fenne b. 1444, d. 28 Sep 1485
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameMay 1510As of May 1510,her married name was Pole.

Henry Pole

M, b. circa 1492, d. 9 January 1539
     1st Baron Montagu. Henry Pole, 1st Baron Montagu (c. 1492 – 9 January 1539) was most famous as one of the peers in the trial of Anne Boleyn. He was the oldest son of Margaret, Countess of Salisbury (godmother to Lady Mary Tudor) and Sir Richard Pole. His brother, Reginald Cardinal Pole, became the last Catholic Archbishop of Canterbury under Queen Mary I.

In May 1510, Henry married Lady Jane Neville, daughter of George Nevill, 4th Baron Bergavenny and Margaret Fenne. They had the following children:

Catherine Pole (born before 1520 – 23 September 1576) married Francis Hastings, 2nd Earl of Huntingdon.
Thomas Pole (d. 1526), married Elizabeth Wingfield.
Henry Pole (1521-1542), married Margaret Neville.
Winifred Pole (b.1525), married firstly Thomas Hastings, son of George Hastings, 1st Earl of Huntingdon, and secondly, Thomas Barrington of Barrington Hall. By Thomas Winifred had the following children: Catherine married 1584 to William Bourchier, great-grandson of John Bourchier, 2nd Baron Berners; a son of Catherine and William was Sir John Bourchier a regicide of King Charles I of England; Sir Francis Barrington; John Barrington.
In November 1538, Henry along with his wife, his wife's brother Edward Neville and other relatives were arrested on a charge of treason by King Henry VIII, though Thomas Cromwell had previously written that they had "little offended save that he is of their kin." Reginald Pole was not among them, as he was in exile at the time, due to his opposition of King Henry's divorce from Catherine of Aragon. They were committed to the Tower of London, and on 9 January 1539 with the exception of Geoffrey Pole, Henry's brother, they were beheaded (Neville had been beheaded earlier on 8 December 1538). Henry Courtenay, 1st Marquess of Exeter was also arrested along with his wife and 11-year old son (his wife would be released two years later while their son spent 15 years in the Tower until his release by Queen Mary on 3 August 1553). Ten days after Henry's arrest, his mother, the Countess Margaret of Salisbury, was also arrested and questioned by William Fitzwilliam, Earl of Southampton, and Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely. They reported to Thomas Cromwell that although they had "travailed with her" for many hours she would "nothing utter", and they were forced to conclude that either her sons had not made her a sharer in their "treason", or else she was "the most arrant traitress that ever lived." She was not to live long. On 27 May 1541 she too was beheaded in the Tower of London.

In essence the execution of the Pole family was the continuation by Henry VIII of his father's programme of eliminating possible contenders for the throne. Margaret Pole was the last Plantagenet remaining alive after the battles and aftermath of the Wars of the Roses: this direct female-line descent from the previous ruling dynasty, combined with the family's firm Catholic allegiance, made her and her sons a grave potential threat to Tudor rule.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_Pole,_1st_Baron_Montagu.