William Fitz Robert

M, b. 23 November 1116, d. 23 November 1183
Father*Robert of Gloucester b. c 1090, d. 31 Oct 1147
Mother*Mabel Fitzhamon b. 1090, d. 29 Sep 1157
     William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester (died 1183) was the son and heir of Sir Robert de Caen, 1st Earl of Gloucester, and Mabel FitzHamon of Gloucester, daughter of Robert Fitzhamon.

His father was Robert, 1st Earl of Gloucester, an illegitimate son of King Henry I of England, thus William was a nephew of the Empress Maud and a cousin of King Stephen, the principal combatants of the English Anarchy period.

In October 1141, William looked after the Baronial estates, when his father fell into the hands of partisans at Winchester. His father was exchanged for King Stephen, and during his father's absence in Normandy in 1144 he served as Governor of Wareham. In 1147, he overthrew Henry de Tracy at Castle Cary.

In 1154 he made an alliance with Roger de Clare, 3rd Earl of Hertford, by which they agreed to aid each other against all men except Henry II of England.

He was Lord of the manor of Glamorgan, as well as Caerleon, residing chiefly at Cardiff Castle. It was there that in 1158 he and his wife and son were captured by the Welsh Lord of Senghenydd, Ifor Bach ("Ivor the Little") and carried away into the woods, where they were held as prisoners until the Earl redressed Ivor's grievances.

In 1173 the earl took the King's part against his sons, but thereafter he appears to have fallen under suspicion, for the following year he submitted to the King, and in 1175 surrendered to him Bristol Castle. Because his only son and heir Robert died in 1166, Earl William made John, the younger son of King Henry II, heir to his earldom, in conformity with the King's promise that John should marry one of the Earl's daughters, if the Church would allow it, they being related in the third degree.

Earl William was present in March 1177 when the King arbitrated between the Kings of Castile and Navarre, and in 1178, he witnessed Henry's charter to Waltham Abbey. But during the King's struggles with his sons, when he imprisoned a number of magnates of whose loyalty he was doubtful, Earl William was among them.

He was married to Hawise de Beaumont of Leicester, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester and Amica de Gael and had 4 children.1

Child of William Fitz Robert and Hawise de Beaumont

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Fitz_Robert,_2nd_Earl_of_Gloucester.

Hawise de Beaumont

F, b. after 1120
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. 1104, d. 5 Apr 1168
Mother*Amica de Gael
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1151As of before 1151,her married name was Fitz Robert.

Child of Hawise de Beaumont and William Fitz Robert

Amica de Gael

F
Father*Ralph de Montfort
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAmica de Gael was also known as de Montfort.
Name VariationAmica de Gael was also known as Amice.
Married Nameafter 1120As of after 1120,her married name was de Beaumont.

Children of Amica de Gael and Robert de Beaumont

Ralph de Montfort

M

Child of Ralph de Montfort

Margaret de Beaumont

F, b. after 1120
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. 1104, d. 5 Apr 1168
Mother*Amica de Gael
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Toeni.

Eleanor of Aquitaine

F, b. 1122, d. 1 April 1204
Father*William X of Aquitaine b. 1099, d. 9 Apr 1137
Mother*Aénor of Châtellerault b. c 1103, d. Mar 1130
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1137As of 1137,her married name was of France.
Married Name1152As of 1152,her married name was of England.
     Eleanor of Aquitaine (in French: Aliénor d’Aquitaine, Éléonore de Guyenne) (1122[note 1] – 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Western Europe during the High Middle Ages. As well as being Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right, she was queen consort of France 1137-1152 and queen consort of England 1154-1189. She was the patroness of such literary figures as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-More, and Chrétien de Troyes.

Eleanor succeeded her father as suo jure Duchess of Aquitaine and Countess of Poitiers at the age of fifteen, and thus became the most eligible bride in Europe. Three months after her accession she married Louis VII, son and junior co-ruler of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of the Franks, she participated in the unsuccessful Second Crusade. Soon after the Crusade was over, Louis VII and Eleanor agreed to dissolve their marriage, because of Eleanor's own desire for divorce and also because the only children they had were two daughters - Marie and Alix. The royal marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152, on the grounds of consanguinity within the fourth degree. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody of them awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her.

As soon as she arrived in Poitiers, Eleanor became engaged to the eleven years younger Henry II, Duke of the Normans. On 18 May 1152, eight weeks after the annulment of her first marriage, Eleanor married the Duke of the Normans. On 25 October 1154 her husband ascended the throne of the Kingdom of England, making Eleanor Queen of the English. Over the next thirteen years, she bore Henry eight children: five sons, two of whom would become king, and three daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. She was imprisoned between 1173 and 1189 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband, King Henry II.

Eleanor was widowed on 6 July 1189. Her husband was succeeded by their son, Richard the Lionheart, who immediately moved to release his mother. Now queen mother, Eleanor acted as a regent for her son while he went off on the Third Crusade. Eleanor survived her son Richard and lived well into the reign of her youngest son King John. By the time of her death she had outlived all of her children except for King John and Eleanor, Queen of Castile.1 The marriage of Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Louis VII of France was annulled in 1152.

Children of Eleanor of Aquitaine and King Henry II of England

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eleanor_of_Aquitaine

Richard I of England

M, b. 8 September 1157, d. 6 April 1199
Father*King Henry II of England b. 5 Mar 1133, d. 6 Jul 1189
Mother*Eleanor of Aquitaine b. 1122, d. 1 Apr 1204
     Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 until his death in 1199. He also ruled as Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Lord of Ireland, Lord of Cyprus, Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Count of Nantes and Overlord of Brittany at various times during the same period. He was known as Cœur de Lion, or Richard the Lionheart, even before his accession, because of his reputation as a great military leader and warrior.[1] The Muslims (referred to as Saracens at the time) called him Melek-Ric or Malek al-Inkitar (King of England).[2]

By age 16, Richard was commanding his own army, putting down rebellions in Poitou against his father, King Henry II.[1] Richard was a central Christian commander during the Third Crusade, effectively leading the campaign after the departure of Philip Augustus and scoring considerable victories against his Muslim counterpart, Saladin.[3][4]

While he spoke very little English and spent very little time in England (he lived in his Duchy of Aquitaine, in the southwest of France), preferring to use his kingdom as a source of revenue to support his armies,[5] he was seen as a pious hero by his subjects.[6] He remains one of the very few Kings of England remembered by his epithet, not number, and is an enduring, iconic figure in England.[5]1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_I_of_England

Rhys the Hoarse Gryg

M, d. 1234
  • Rhys the Hoarse Gryg died in 1234.

Child of Rhys the Hoarse Gryg

William de Briwere

M, b. circa 1145, d. 1226
Father*Henry de Briwere b. c 1114, d. a 1165

Child of William de Briwere and Beatrice de Vaux

Beatrice de Vaux

F, b. circa 1149, d. 1216
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Briwere.

Child of Beatrice de Vaux and William de Briwere

John FitzGilbert the Marshal

M, b. circa 1105, d. 1165
Father*Gilbert Giffard
     John FitzGilbert the Marshal (Marechal) (c. 1105 – 1165) was a minor Anglo-Norman nobleman during the reign of King Stephen, and fought in the 12th century civil war on the side of the Empress Matilda. Since at least 1130 and probably earlier, he had been the royal marshal to King Henry I. When Henry died, John FitzGilbert swore for Stephen and was granted the castles of Marlborough and Ludgershall, Wiltshire during this time. Along with Hamstead Marshal, this gave him control of the valley of the River Kennet in Wiltshire. Around 1139, John changed sides and swore for the Empress Matilda. In September 1141, Matilda fled the siege of Winchester and took refuge in the Marshal's castle at Ludgershall. While covering her retreat from Winchester, John Marshal was forced to take refuge at Wherwell Abbey. The attackers set fire to the building, and John lost an eye to dripping lead from the melting roof.

In 1152, John had a legendary confrontation with King Stephen, who had besieged him at Newbury Castle. After John had broken an agreement to surrender, Stephen threatened to kill his son, whom John had given as a hostage. John refused, saying he could make more sons, but Stephen apparently took pity on the young boy and did not kill him. The boy grew up to be William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke, a legendary figure in medieval lore, and one of the most powerful men in England.

The office of Lord Marshal, which originally related to the keeping of the King's horses, and later, the head of his household troops, was won as a hereditary title by John, and was passed to his eldest son, and later claimed by William. John also had a daughter, Margaret Marshal, married Ralph de Somery, son of John de Somery and Hawise de Paynell.

John was the son of Gilbert Giffard (Royal Serjeant and Marshal to Henry I). In 1141, John arranged an annullment of his marriage to Aline Pipard in order to marry Sibyl of Salisbury, the sister of Patrick of Salisbury, who had been a local rival of his, and a supporter of King Stephen, up to that point. John had two sons by Aline - Gilbert and Walter. Walter predeceased his father and Gilbert died shortly after inheriting his father's lands.

John's eldest son by Sybilla of Salisbury, also called John Marshal (died 1194), inherited the title of Marshal, which he held until his death. The title was then granted by King Richard the Lionheart to his second son by Sybilla, William, who made the name and title famous. Though he had started out as a younger son without inheritance, by the time he actually inherited the title his reputation as a soldier and statesman was unmatched across Western Europe. John Marshal had four sons in total by his second wife. As well as John and William, there was Henry, who went on to become Bishop of Exeter, and Ancel, who served as a knight in the household of his kinsman, Rotrou, Count of Perche.1 The marriage of John FitzGilbert the Marshal and Aline Pipard was annulled in 1141.

Children of John FitzGilbert the Marshal and Aline Pipard

Children of John FitzGilbert the Marshal and Sibyl of Salisbury

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Marshal_(Earl_Marshal).

Sibyl of Salisbury

F
Father*Walter of Salisbury
Mother*Sibilla de Chaworth
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationSibyl of Salisbury was also known as Sybilla.
Married Name1141As of 1141,her married name was Marshal.

Children of Sibyl of Salisbury and John FitzGilbert the Marshal

John Marshal

M, b. before 1146, d. 1194
Father*John FitzGilbert the Marshal b. c 1105, d. 1165
Mother*Sibyl of Salisbury

Gilbert Giffard

M

Child of Gilbert Giffard

Aline Pipard

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1141As of before 1141,her married name was Marshal.
     The marriage of Aline Pipard and John FitzGilbert the Marshal was annulled in 1141.

Children of Aline Pipard and John FitzGilbert the Marshal

Gilbert Marshal

M, b. before 1141
Father*John FitzGilbert the Marshal b. c 1105, d. 1165
Mother*Aline Pipard

Walter Marshal

M, b. before 1141
Father*John FitzGilbert the Marshal b. c 1105, d. 1165
Mother*Aline Pipard

Henry Marshal

M, b. after 1146
Father*John FitzGilbert the Marshal b. c 1105, d. 1165
Mother*Sibyl of Salisbury

Ancel Marshal

M, b. after 1146
Father*John FitzGilbert the Marshal b. c 1105, d. 1165
Mother*Sibyl of Salisbury

Walter of Salisbury

M

Children of Walter of Salisbury and Sibilla de Chaworth

Sibilla de Chaworth

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Salisbury.

Children of Sibilla de Chaworth and Walter of Salisbury

Patrick of Salisbury

M, b. circa 1122, d. 1168
Father*Walter of Salisbury
Mother*Sibilla de Chaworth
     Patrick of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Salisbury (c. 1122 - 1168) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman, and the uncle of the famous William Marshal.

His parents were Walter of Salisbury and Sibilla de Chaworth.[1] Before 1141, Patrick was constable of Salisbury, a powerful local official but not a nobleman. That year, Patrick married his sister to John fitzGilbert the Marshal, who had been a local rival of his, and transferred his allegiance from King Stephen to the Empress Matilda. This political move gained him his earldom, and the friendship of John the Marshal, who was to send his younger son William to stay with him. It was in his household where the famous Marshal first learned about knighthood.

The Earl of Salisbury also minted his own coins, struck in the county town of Salisbury during the so called "baronial issues" of 1135-1153. Only four examples have survived, three of which are in the Conte collection.

Patrick married twice,[2] his second wife being Ela, daughter of William III Talvas, Duke of Alençon and Ponthieu, whom he married in 1149. They had a son, William in about 1150[1] and three others, including Walter and Philip.[2]

He was killed at Poitiers, France on March 27, 1168 in an ambush by forces of Guy of Lusignan.[1]1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patrick_of_Salisbury,_1st_Earl_of_Salisbury.

Hugh IX de Lusignan

M
Father*Hugh VIII de Lusignan b. c 1141, d. 1169
Mother*Orengarde (?)
     Hugh IX the Brown of Lusignan (1163 or 1168 – 5 November 1219)[1] was the grandson of Hugh VIII. His father, also Hugh (b. c. 1141), was the co-seigneur of Lusignan from 1164, marrying a woman named Orengarde before 1162 or about 1167 and dying in 1169. Hugh IX became seigneur of Lusignan in 1172, seigneur of Couhe and Chateau-Larcher in the 1190s, and Count of La Marche (as Hugh IV) by marriage in 1203. Hugh IX died on the Fifth Crusade at Damietta on 5 November 1219.

Hugh IX is mentioned under the pseudonym Maracdes ("Emerald") in two poems by the troubadour Gaucelm Faidit, according to the Occitan razós to these poems.

His first wife was Agathe de Preuilly, daughter of Peter (Pierre) II de Preuilly and Aenor de Mauleon. Their marriage was annulled in 1189. His second wife, married c. 1189, was Mathilde of Angoulême (1181 – 1233), daughter of Wulgrim III, Count of Angouleme and Count of La Marche (brother of count Aymer/Adhemar Taillifer). He had two known children:

Hugh X of Lusignan. Although traditionally given as son of Matilde, he married Isabella of Angoulême, her first cousin. Since such a marriage would have been within prohibited degrees, it has been deduced that he was son of Agathe.
Agathe of Lusignan, married c. 1220 Geoffroi V Seigneur de Pons.1

Child of Hugh IX de Lusignan

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_IX_of_Lusignan

Hugh VIII de Lusignan

M, b. circa 1141, d. 1169
  • Hugh VIII de Lusignan was born circa 1141.
  • He married Orengarde (?) circa 1162.
  • Hugh VIII de Lusignan died in 1169.

Children of Hugh VIII de Lusignan and Orengarde (?)

Orengarde (?)

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namecirca 1162As of circa 1162,her married name was de Lusignan.

Alice De Bohun

F
Father*Humphrey IV De Bohun b. c 1208, d. 24 Sep 1275
Mother*Maud de Lusignan b. 1210, d. 14 Aug 1241
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Toeni.

Child of Alice De Bohun and Roger V de Toeni

Roger V de Toeni

M

Child of Roger V de Toeni and Alice De Bohun

Walter Marshal

M, b. 1196, d. 24 November 1245
Father*William Marshal b. 1146, d. 14 May 1219
Mother*Isabel de Clare b. 1172, d. 1220
     Walter Marshal, 5th Earl of Pembroke (1196 – 24 November 1245), was the fourth son of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke who succeeded his childless brother Gilbert as the 5th Earl of Pembroke and Earl Marshal of England in 1242 a year after the latter's death. He also held the titles of Lord of Striguil and Lord of Leinster.

Walter was born in 1196, the fourth son and one of the ten children of William Marshal, 1st Earl of Pembroke and Isabel de Clare, 4th Countess of Pembroke suo jure. His mother was the only surviving legitimate child of Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known to history as "Strongbow" and Aoife of Leinster, therefore she was one of the wealthiest heiresses in the kingdom when she married Walter's father. Upon William Marshal's death in 1219, the earldom passed in succession to Walter's three elder brothers, William, Richard, and Gilbert, all of whom died childless. The latter was killed at a tournament on 27 June 1241[1] when his horse threw him and his foot caught in the stirrups. He was dragged for some distance and died of his injuries.[2]Walter was present at the tournament, therefore had witnessed his brother's death.[3] As Gilbert had just one illegitimate daughter Isabel by an unknown mistress, Walter became the next earl of Pembroke. He did not succeed to his titles until 1242 due to King Henry III's anger towards Walter for having disobeyed royal orders which had forbidden tournaments on the grounds that he did not want any of his subjects killing one another in sport.[4] Walter who had attended the tournament which had killed Gilbert shared in his brother's guilt, so had to wait a year before he was invested with the earldom and hereditary post of Earl Marshal. That same year he accompanied King Henry to Gascony.

On 6 January 1242 Walter married Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln suo jure, the wealthy widow of John de Lacy, 1st Earl of Lincoln and the mother of two children. Margaret did not bear Walter any children, and when he died suddenly at Goodrich Castle on 24 November 1245, the earldom passed to his younger brother, Anselm Marshal, 6th Earl of Pembroke, who followed him to the grave a month later. Like his four elder brothers, Anselm was also childless. Walter's widow, Margaret received a dower third from the Pembroke earldom and lordships, and as such she controlled most of the extensive Pembroke estates as her third outweighed the individual holdings of the 13 different co-heirs of his five sisters.

Walter Marshal was buried at Tintern Abbey, Monmouthshire.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Marshal,_5th_Earl_of_Pembroke.

Ralph VII de Toeni

M, b. 1255, d. 1295
Father*Roger V de Toeni
Mother*Alice De Bohun

Children of Ralph VII de Toeni and Mary (?)

Mary (?)

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Toeni.

Children of Mary (?) and Ralph VII de Toeni