Robert de Beaumont

M, d. circa 21 October 1204
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. a 1120, d. 1190
Mother*Petronilla (?)
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationRobert de Beaumont was also known as FitzPernel.
     Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester (died circa 21 October 1204) was an English nobleman, the last of the Beaumont earls of Leicester. He is sometimes known as Robert FitzPernel.

Robert was the eldest surviving son of Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester and Petronilla, who was either a granddaughter or great-granddaughter of Hugh de Grandmesnil. As a young man, he accompanied King Richard I on the Third Crusade, and it was while the crusading forces rested at Messina, Sicily that Robert was invested with the Earldom of Leicester in early 1191. (His father had died on his way to the Holy Lands in 1190.)

Robert's newly-gained estates included a large part of central Normandy. He held castles at Pacy, Pont-Saint-Pierre and Grandmesnil. Earl Robert also was lord of the vast honor of Breteuil, but the family castle there had been dismantled after the 1173-1174 War. On his return from the crusade, he turned his attentions to the defense of Normandy from the French. After defending Rouen from the advances of Philip II of France, he attempted to retake his castle of Pacy. He was captured by forces of the French king and remained imprisoned for 3 years. Later, King John would bestow the new fortress and lordship of Radepont (the land of Radepont was traded to King John by the seigneur du Neubourg for lands and revenues in the pays de Caux) upon the earl.

Sometime after his release in 1196 he married Loretta de Braose, daughter of William de Braose, 4th Lord of Bramber. They had no children, and Robert's death in 1204 brought the end of the Beaumont male line.

In the year of his death Normandy was lost to the French; Earl Robert attempted to come to an independent arrangement with King Philip of France, in which he would hold his land in Normandy as a liege-vassal of the Kings of France, and his lands in England as a liege-vassal of the Kings of England. In any event, Robert died that year, but his great English estates were divided between the heirs of his two sisters. The eldest sister, Amicia, had married the French baron Simon de Montfort, and their son, also named Simon de Montfort, inherited half the estate as well as the title of Earl of Leicester. The younger sister, Margaret, had married Saer de Quincy, and they inherited the other half. Three years later Saer was created Earl of Winchester.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Beaumont,_4th_Earl_of_Leicester.

Loretta de Braose

F
Father*William de Braose b. c 1144, d. 9 Aug 1211
Mother*Matilda de St. Valery b. 1155, d. 1210
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1196As of 1196,her married name was de Beaumont.

Margaret de Beaumont

F
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. a 1120, d. 1190
Mother*Petronilla (?)
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Quincy.

Children of Margaret de Beaumont and Saer de Quincy

Saer de Quincy

M, b. 1155, d. 3 November 1219
Father*Robert de Quincy
Mother*Orabilis of Leuchars
     Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester (1155 – 3rd November 1219) was one of the leaders of the baronial rebellion against King John of England, and a major figure in both Scotland and England in the decades around the turn of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.

Saer de Quincy's immediate background was in the Scottish kingdom: his father was a knight in the service of king William the Lion, and his mother was the heiress of the lordship of Leuchars in Fife (see below). His rise to prominence in England came through his marriage to Margaret, the younger sister of Robert de Beaumont, 4th Earl of Leicester: but it is probably no coincidence that her other brother was the de Quincys' powerful Fife neighbour, Roger de Beaumont, Bishop of St Andrews. In 1204, Earl Robert died, leaving Margaret as co-heiress of the vast earldom along with her elder sister. The estate was split in half, and after the final division was ratified in 1207, de Quincy was made Earl of Winchester.

Following his marriage, de Quincy became a prominent military and diplomatic figure in England. There is no evidence of any close alliance with King John, however, and his rise to importance was probably due to his newly-acquired magnate status and the family connections that underpinned it.

One man with whom he does seem to have developed a close personal relationship is his cousin, Robert Fitzwalter. They are first found together in 1203, as co-commanders of the garrison at the major fortress of Vaudreuil in Normandy; they were responsible for surrendering the castle without a fight to Philip II of France, fatally weakening the English position in northern France, but although popular opinion seems to have blamed them for the capitulation, a royal writ is extant stating that the castle was surrendered at King John's command, and both Saer and Fitzwalter had to endure personal humiliation and heavy ransoms at the hands of the French.

In Scotland, he was perhaps more successful. In 1211-12, the Earl of Winchester commanded an imposing retinue of a hundred knights and a hundred serjeants in William the Lion's campaign against the Mac William rebels, a force which some historians have suggested may have been the mercenary force from Brabant lent to the campaign by John.

In 1215, when the baronial rebellion broke out, Robert Fitzwalter became the military commander, and the Earl of Winchester joined him, acting as one of the chief negotiators with John; both cousins were among the 25 guarantors of the Magna Carta. De Quincy fought against John in the troubles that followed the signing of the Charter, and, again with Fitzwalter, travelled to France to invite Prince Louis of France to take the English throne. He and Fitzwalter were subsequently among the most committed and prominent supporters of Louis' candidature for the kingship, against both John and the infant Henry III.

When military defeat cleared the way for Henry III to take the throne, de Quincy went on crusade, perhaps in fulfillment of an earlier vow, and in 1219 he left to join the Fifth Crusade, then besieging Damietta. While in the east, he fell sick and died. He was buried in Acre, the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, rather than in Egypt, and his heart was brought back and interred at Garendon Abbey near Loughborough, a house endowed by his wife's family.

The family of de Quincy had arrived in England after the Norman Conquest, and took their name from Cuinchy in the Arrondissement of Béthune; the personal name "Saer" was used by them over several generations. Both names are variously spelled in primary sources and older modern works, the first name being sometimes rendered Saher or Seer, and the surname as Quency or Quenci.

The first recorded Saer de Quincy (known to historians as "Saer I") was lord of the manor of Long Buckby in Northamptonshire in the earlier twelfth century, and second husband of Matilda of St Liz, stepdaughter of King David I of Scotland by Maud of Northumbria. This marriage produced two sons, Saer II and Robert de Quincy. It was Robert, the younger son, who was the father of the Saer de Quincy who eventually became Earl of Winchester. By her first husband Robert Fitz Richard, Matilda was also the paternal grandmother of Earl Saer's close ally, Robert Fitzwalter.

Robert de Quincy seems to have inherited no English lands from his father, and pursued a knightly career in Scotland, where he is recorded from around 1160 as a close companion of his cousin, King William the Lion. By 1170 he had married Orabilis, heiress of the Scottish lordship of Leuchars and, through her, he became lord of an extensive complex of estates north of the border which included lands in Fife, Strathearn and Lothian.

Saer de Quincy, the son of Robert de Quincy and Orabilis of Leuchars, was raised largely in Scotland. His absence from English records for the first decades of his life has led some modern historians and genealogists to confuse him with his uncle, Saer II, who took part in the rebellion of Henry the Young King in 1173, when the future Earl of Winchester can have been no more than a toddler. Saer II's line ended without direct heirs, and his nephew and namesake would eventually inherit his estate, uniting his primary Scottish holdings with the family's Northamptonshire patrimony, and possibly some lands in France.

By his wife Margaret de Beaumont, Saer de Quincy had three sons and three daughters:

Lorette who married Sir William de Valognes
Arabella who married Sir Richard Harcourt
Robert (d. 1217), before 1206 he married Hawise of Chester, Countess of Lincoln, sister and co-heiress of Ranulf de Blundeville, Earl of Chester.
Roger, who succeeded his father as earl of Winchester (though he did not take formal possession of the earldom until after his mother's death);
Robert de Quincy (second son of that name; d. 1257) who married Helen, daughter of the Welsh prince Llywelyn the Great;
Hawise, who married Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford.1

Children of Saer de Quincy and Margaret de Beaumont

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saer_de_Quincy,_1st_Earl_of_Winchester.

Robert de Quincy

M
Father*Saer I de Quincy
Mother*Matilda of St Liz

Child of Robert de Quincy and Orabilis of Leuchars

Orabilis of Leuchars

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Quincy.

Child of Orabilis of Leuchars and Robert de Quincy

Hawise de Quincy

F
Father*Saer de Quincy b. 1155, d. 3 Nov 1219
Mother*Margaret de Beaumont
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.

Child of Hawise de Quincy and Hugh de Vere

Hugh de Vere

M, b. circa 1210, d. December 1263
Father*Robert de Vere d. 1221
Mother*Isabel de Bolebec b. 1165, d. 3 Feb 1245
     Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford (c. 1210–December, 1263) was the only child and heir of Robert de Vere, 3rd Earl of Oxford, born circa 1208. When his father died in 1221, his mother Isabel de Bolebec paid for wardship of her son and heir. Hugh did homage for his earldom in 1231. He was knighted around the same time.

He supposedly took part in the Seventh Crusade in 1248–1254. He purchased the right to hold a market at the town on his primary estate, Castle Hedingham in Essex, and founded a nunnery there as well. Hugh married Hawise de Quincy, daughter of Saer de Quincy, 1st Earl of Winchester, and his wife, Margaret de Beaumont. When he died in 1263, he was succeeded by his son Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford.1

Child of Hugh de Vere and Hawise de Quincy

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_de_Vere,_4th_Earl_of_Oxford.

Robert de Vere

M, d. 1221
Father*Aubrey III de Vere b. c 1115, d. Dec 1194
Mother*Agnes of Essex b. c 1151, d. c 1212
     Robert de Vere (died 1221) was the second surviving son of Aubrey de Vere III, first earl of Oxford, and Agnes of Essex. Almost nothing of his life is known until he married in 1207 the widow Isabel de Bolebec, the aunt and co-heiress of his deceased sister-in-law. The couple had one child, a son, Hugh, later 4th earl of Oxford. When Robert's brother Aubrey de Vere IV, 2nd earl of Oxford died in Oct. 1214, Robert succeeded to his brother's title, estates, castles, and hereditary office of master chamberlain of England (later Lord Great Chamberlain). He swiftly joined the disaffected barons in opposition to King John; many among the rebels were his kinsmen. He was elected one of the twenty-five barons who were to ensure the king's adherence to the terms of Magna Carta, and as such was excommunicated by Pope Innocent III in 1215.

King John besieged and took Castle Hedingham, Essex, from Robert in March 1216 and gave his lands to a loyal baron. While this prompted Robert to swear loyalty to the king soon thereafter, he nonetheless did homage to Prince Louis when the French prince arrived in Rochester later that year. He remained in the rebel camp until Oct. 1217, when he did homage to the boy-king Henry III, but he was not fully restored in his offices and lands until Feb. 1218.[1]

At this time, aristocratic marriages were routinely contracted after negotiations over dowry and dower. In most cases, dower lands were assigned from the estates held by the groom at the time of the marriage. If specific dower lands were not named, on the death of the husband the widow was entitled to one-third of his estate. When Robert's brother Earl Aubrey married a second time, he did not name a dower for his wife Alice, for Robert determined the division of his estate by having lots drawn. For each manor his sister-in-law drew, he drew two. This is the sole known case of assigning dower lands in this manner.

Robert served as a king's justice in 1220-21, and died in Oct. 1221. He was buried at Hatfield Regis Priory, where his son Earl Hugh or grandson Earl Robert later had an effigy erected. Earl Robert is depicted in chain mail, cross-legged, pulling his sword from its scabbard and holding a shield with the arms of the Veres. [2]1

Child of Robert de Vere and Isabel de Bolebec

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Vere,_3rd_Earl_of_Oxford.

Agnes of Essex

F, b. circa 1151, d. circa 1212
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.
     Agnes of Essex, countess of Oxford (c. 1151 – c. 1212) was the daughter of Henry of Essex and his second wife. She was betrothed at age three to Geoffrey de Vere, brother of the first earl of Oxford, and turned over to the Veres soon thereafter. Agnes later rejected the match with Geoffrey and by 1163 had married his brother Aubrey de Vere III, the earl (died 1194), as his third wife.

After her father's disgrace and forfeiture of lands and offices in that year, the earl sought to have his marriage annulled. Agnes fought the action. On May 9, 1166, she appealed her case from the court of the bishop of London to the pope (the archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket, being in exile at the time). While the case was pending in Rome, the earl kept Agnes confined in one of his three castles, for which the bishop of London Gilbert Foliot reprimanded Aubrey. Pope Alexander III ruled in her favor, thus establishing the right and requirement of consent by females in betrothal and the sacrament of marriage.

The couple may have co-operated in the founding of a Benedictine nunnery near their castle at Castle Hedingham, Essex. Countess Agnes survived her husband and paid the crown for the right to remain unmarried in 1198. She died sometime in or after 1212 and was buried in the Vere mausoleum, Colne Priory, Essex.

Many have followed the mistake of antiquarians in believing the third wife of earl Aubrey to have been named Lucia. A woman of this name was prioress at Castle Hedingham Priory. On Lucia's death, a mortuary or roll was carried to many religious houses in the region requesting prayers, and in the preface of that document Lucia is called the foundress of the priory. As the countess presumably cooperated with her husband in the founding of the house, the erroneous assumption was made that the prioress was in fact the earl's widow.[1]

Agnes bore her husband four sons and a daughter, including two future earls of Oxford: Aubrey IV and Robert I. Her daughter Alice married 1) Ernulf de Kemesech, 2) John, constable of Chester. Their son Henry may have become chancellor of Hereford Cathedral in the bishopric of his uncle, William de Vere, and later a royal clerk under King John of England.[2]1

Children of Agnes of Essex and Aubrey III de Vere

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agnes_of_Essex

Geoffrey de Vere

M
Father*Aubrey II de Vere b. c 1080, d. 1141
Mother*Alice de Clare b. c 1077, d. 1163

Aubrey IV de Vere

M, d. 1214
Father*Aubrey III de Vere b. c 1115, d. Dec 1194
Mother*Agnes of Essex b. c 1151, d. c 1212

Saer I de Quincy

M

Children of Saer I de Quincy and Matilda of St Liz

Saer II de Quincy

M
Father*Saer I de Quincy
Mother*Matilda of St Liz

Simon of St Liz

M, d. 1109
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationSimon of St Liz was also known as de Senlis.

Children of Simon of St Liz and Maud of Northumbria

Walteof of St Liz

M, b. 1100, d. circa 1159
Father*Simon of St Liz d. 1109
Mother*Maud of Northumbria b. 1074, d. 1130
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationWalteof of St Liz was also known as de Senlis.

Simon II de Senlis

M, d. 1153
Father*Simon of St Liz d. 1109
Mother*Maud of Northumbria b. 1074, d. 1130
     Simon II de Senlis (died 1153) was an Anglo-Norman nobleman. He was the son of Simon I de Senlis, Earl of Huntingdon-Northampton and Maud, Countess of Huntingdon. He married Isabel, daughter of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester.

He was prominent in The Anarchy, fighting for Stephen of England in 1141 at the Battle of Lincoln. He continued to support Stephen's side; R. H. C. Davis calls him 'staunch' and 'consistently loyal'[1] and surmises that Simon calculated that if the Empress Matilda won, his earldom of Northampton would be taken over by David of Scotland.[2]

Simon was rewarded by becoming Earl of Huntingdon. He died in 1153 just before Henry II of England took over.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simon_II_de_St_Liz,_4th_Earl_of_Huntingdon_and_Northampton.

Isabel de Beaumont

F, b. after 1120
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. 1104, d. 5 Apr 1168
Mother*Amica de Gael
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Senlis.

Elen ferch Llywelyn

F, b. circa 1206, d. 1253
Father*Prince Llywelyn the Great ab Iorwerth b. c 1173, d. 11 Apr 1240
Mother*Joan Plantagenet b. c 1191, d. 2 Feb 1237
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Quincy.
Name VariationElen ferch Llywelyn was also known as Helen.
     Elen ferch Llywelyn (c. 1206 – 1253) was the daughter of Llywelyn the Great of Gwynedd in north Wales by Lady Joan, daughter of King John of England.

Elen married John de Scotia, Earl of Chester, in about 1222. He died aged thirty in 1237, and she was forced by King Henry III to marry Sir Robert de Quincy. Their daughter, Hawise, married Baldwin Wake, Lord Wake of Lidel. Hawise and Baldwin’s granddaughter, Margaret Wake, was the mother of Joan of Kent, later Princess of Wales. Thus the blood of Llywelyn Fawr passed into the English royal family through King Richard II.1

Child of Elen ferch Llywelyn and Robert de Quincy

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elen_ferch_Llywelyn

Robert de Quincy

M, d. 1257
Father*Saer de Quincy b. 1155, d. 3 Nov 1219
Mother*Margaret de Beaumont

Child of Robert de Quincy and Elen ferch Llywelyn

Hawise de Quincy

F
Father*Robert de Quincy d. 1257
Mother*Elen ferch Llywelyn b. c 1206, d. 1253
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Wake.

Child of Hawise de Quincy and Baldwin Wake

Baldwin Wake

M, b. before 1241, d. 1282
Father*Hugh Wake d. 1241
Mother*Joan de Stuteville
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationBaldwin Wake was also known as Baldewinus.
     Baldwin Wake, knight (d. 1282) had been a rebellious baron under Henry III and was taken prisoner by Lord Edward at the siege of Kenilworth in 1265. The main seat of the Wakes at this time seems to have been at Bilsworth, Northamptonshire but they also had lands in Yorkshire and Bedfordshire. Baldwin's father Hugh Wake of Liddell, Sheriff of Yorkshire, died in Jerusalem about 1241 and various online genealogies gives a year of birth between 1236-8, which seems probable. His son John was to become Lord Wake Liddell in 1295.
'1264, when Stevington Manor passed to Hadwisa wife of Baldwin Wake, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Robert de Quincy. Baldwin Wake died in 1281–2, leaving a son John, and in 1284 Hadwisa Wake rendered feudal service for Stevington.' (VCH)
Hawisa de Quincy (c. 1250-c. 1295) dau Robert de Quincy, Lord of Ware (younger son of the 1st Earl of Winchester) and Helen ap Llywelyn (dau of Llywelyn ap Iorwerth, Prince of North Wales). Lord Wake of Lidel.

Child of Baldwin Wake and Hawise de Quincy

John Wake

M, b. 1268, d. 1300
Father*Baldwin Wake b. b 1241, d. 1282
Mother*Hawise de Quincy

Children of John Wake and Joan de Fiennes

Joan de Fiennes

F, b. circa 1273, d. 1309
Father*William II de Fiennes b. c 1250, d. 11 Jul 1302
Mother*Blanche de Brienne b. c 1252, d. c 1302
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namecirca 1291As of circa 1291,her married name was Wake.

Children of Joan de Fiennes and John Wake

Margaret Wake

F, b. circa 1297, d. 29 September 1349
Father*John Wake b. 1268, d. 1300
Mother*Joan de Fiennes b. c 1273, d. 1309
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namecirca 1312As of circa 1312,her married name was Comyn.
Married Name1325As of 1325,her married name was Plantagenet.
Married Name1325As of 1325,her married name was of Woodstock.
     Margaret Wake (c. 1297 – 29 September 1349) was the wife of Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent.

She was the daughter of John Wake, 1st Baron Wake of Liddell, and was descended directly from Llywelyn the Great, Prince of Gwynedd. Her mother was Joan de Fiennes, making her a cousin of Roger Mortimer, 1st Earl of March.

Margaret married John Comyn (c. 1294-1314) around 1312, son of the John Comyn who was murdered by Robert the Bruce in 1306. Her husband John died at the Battle of Bannockburn, and their only child, Aymer Comyn (1314-1316) died as a toddler. She married for a second time, to Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent. They received a dispensation in October 1325, and the wedding probably took place at Christmas.

Through her marriage to Edmund (who was executed for treason in 1330), she was the mother of two short-lived Earls of Kent, of Margaret and Joan of Kent (wife of Edward, the Black Prince). The pregnant Margaret and her children were confined to Salisbury Castle, and her brother Thomas Wake was accused of treason but later pardoned. When King Edward III of England reached his majority and overthrew the regents, he took in Margaret and her children and treated them as his own family. She succeeded briefly as Baroness Wake of Liddell in 1349, but died during an outbreak of the plague that autumn.1

Children of Margaret Wake and Edmund Plantagenet

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Wake,_3rd_Baroness_Wake_of_Liddell.

Margaret of France

F, b. 1279, d. 14 February 1318
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name8 September 1299As of 8 September 1299,her married name was of England.
     Margaret of France (1279 ?[1] – 14 February 1318[1]), a daughter of Philip III of France and Maria of Brabant, was Queen of England as the second wife of King Edward I of England.

Three years after the death of his beloved first wife, Eleanor of Castile, at the age of 49 in 1290, Edward I was still grieving. But news got to him of the beauty of Blanche, daughter of the late King Philip III. Edward decided that he would marry Blanche at any cost and sent out emissaries to negotiate the marriage with her half-brother, King Philip IV. It was also much to Edward's benefit to make peace with France to free him to pursue his wars in Scotland. Philip agreed to give Blanche to Edward on the following conditions:

A truce was concluded between the two countries.
Edward gave up the province of Gascony.
Edward agreed and sent his brother Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, to fetch the new bride. Edward had been deceived, for Blanche was to be married to Rudolph III of Habsburg, the eldest son of King Albert I of Germany. Instead, Philip offered her younger sister Margaret, a young girl of 11, to marry Edward (then 55). Upon hearing this, Edward declared war on France, refusing to marry Margaret. After five years, a truce was agreed, under the terms of which Edward would marry Margaret, would regain the key city of Guienne, and receive £15,000 owed to Margaret.

Marguerite of France's arms as Queen consort[2]Edward was then 60 years old. The wedding took place at Canterbury on 8 September 1299. Marguerite was never crowned, being the first uncrowned queen since the Conquest.[3]

Edward soon returned to the Scottish border to continue his campaigns and left Margaret in London. After several months, bored and lonely, the young queen decided to join her husband. Nothing could have pleased the king more, for Margaret's actions reminded him of his first wife Eleanor, who had had two of her sixteen children abroad.

Margaret soon became firm friends with her stepdaughter Mary, a nun, who was two years older than the young queen. She and her stepson, Edward (who was two years younger than her), also became fond of each other: he once made her a gift of an expensive ruby and gold ring, and she on one occasion rescued many of the Prince's friends from the wrath of the King. In less than a year Margaret gave birth to a son, and then another a year later. It is said that many who fell under the king's wrath were saved from too stern a punishment by the queen's influence over her husband, and the statement, Pardoned solely on the intercession of our dearest consort, queen Margaret of England, appears.

The mismatched couple were blissfully happy. When Blanche died in 1305 (her husband never became Emperor), Edward ordered all the court to go into mourning to please his queen. He had realised the wife he had gained was "a pearl of great price". The same year Margaret gave birth to a girl, Eleanor, named in honour of Edward's first queen, a choice of which surprised many, and showed Margaret's unjealous nature.

In all, Margaret gave birth to three children:

Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1300 - 1338)
Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent (1301 – 1330)
Eleanor of England (4 May 1306 - 1311).1

Child of Margaret of France and King Edward I of England

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marguerite_of_France_(born_1282).

Maud Holland

F, b. after 1340
Father*Thomas Holland b. c 1314, d. 26 Dec 1360
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Luxembourg.

Joan Holland

F, b. after 1340
Father*Thomas Holland b. c 1314, d. 26 Dec 1360
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Brittany.

Edward, the Black Prince of England

M, b. 15 June 1330, d. 8 June 1376
Father*King Edward III of England b. 13 Nov 1312, d. 21 Jun 1377
Mother*Philippe de Hainaut b. 1314, d. 1369
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationEdward, the Black Prince of England was also known as Edward of Woodstock.
     Edward, Prince of Wales (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as The Black Prince after the distinctive plate armour he would wear during campaigns. An exceptional military leader and popular during his life, Edward died one year before his father and thus never ruled as king (becoming the first English Prince of Wales to suffer that fate). The throne passed, instead, to his son Richard, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester in 1333, Duke of Cornwall in 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales in 1343. In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent."[1] Edward gained Innocent VI's papal permission and absolution for this marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainault, being her second cousin) and married Joan in 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle, prompting some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire) or Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire.

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most brilliant[clarification needed] of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings, like James IV of Majorca and Peter of Castile.

Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Castilian forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin.

During this period, he fathered two sons: Edward (27 January 1365–1372), who died at the age of 6; and Richard, born in 1367 and often called Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth, who would later rule as Richard II of England. He had at least two illegitimate sons, both born before his marriage: Sir Roger Clarendon and Sir John Sounder.[2]

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died a few years later after a long lasting illness that may have been cancer or multiple sclerosis.1

Children of Edward, the Black Prince of England and Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward,_the_Black_Prince.

Richard II of England

M, b. 6 January 1367, d. circa 14 February 1400
Father*Edward, the Black Prince of England b. 15 Jun 1330, d. 8 Jun 1376
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
     Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400) was the eighth King of England of the House of Plantagenet. He ruled from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. At the age of four, Richard became second in line to the throne when his older brother Edward of Angoulême died, and heir apparent when his father died in 1376. With Edward III's death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. The political community preferred this to a regency led by the king's uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, which the young king handled well, playing a major part in suppressing the rebellion. In the following years, however, the king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent in the political community, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of noblemen known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. Then, in 1397, he took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Though he claimed initially that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, it soon became clear that he intended to claim the throne for himself. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity early the next year; he was probably murdered.

As an individual, Richard was tall, good-looking and intelligent. Though probably not insane, as earlier historians used to believe, he seems to have suffered from certain personality disorders, especially towards the end of his reign. Less of a warrior than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War that Edward III had started. He was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, something which led him to restrain the power of his nobility, and rely on a private retinue for military protection instead. He also cultivated a courtly atmosphere where the king was an elevated figure, and art and culture were at the centre, in contrast to the fraternal, martial court of his grandfather. Richard's posthumous reputation has to a large extent been shaped by Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and Bolingbroke's deposition as responsible for the fifteenth-century Wars of the Roses. Contemporary historians do not accept this interpretation, while not thereby exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. Most authorities agree that, even though his policies were not unprecedented or entirely unrealistic, the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, and this led to his downfall.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England