Maud Holland

F, b. after 1340
Father*Thomas Holland b. c 1314, d. 26 Dec 1360
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Luxembourg.

Joan Holland

F, b. after 1340
Father*Thomas Holland b. c 1314, d. 26 Dec 1360
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Brittany.

Edward, the Black Prince of England

M, b. 15 June 1330, d. 8 June 1376
Father*King Edward III of England b. 13 Nov 1312, d. 21 Jun 1377
Mother*Philippe de Hainaut b. 1314, d. 1369
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationEdward, the Black Prince of England was also known as Edward of Woodstock.
     Edward, Prince of Wales (15 June 1330 – 8 June 1376) was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England. He was called Edward of Woodstock in his early life, after his birthplace, and has more recently been popularly known as The Black Prince after the distinctive plate armour he would wear during campaigns. An exceptional military leader and popular during his life, Edward died one year before his father and thus never ruled as king (becoming the first English Prince of Wales to suffer that fate). The throne passed, instead, to his son Richard, a minor, upon the death of Edward III.

Edward was born on 15 June 1330 at Woodstock Palace in Oxfordshire. He was created Earl of Chester in 1333, Duke of Cornwall in 1337 (the first creation of an English duke) and finally invested as Prince of Wales in 1343. In England, Edward served as a symbolic regent for periods in 1339, 1340, and 1342 while Edward III was on campaign. He was expected to attend all council meetings, and he performed the negotiations with the papacy about the war in 1337.

Edward had been raised with his cousin Joan, "The Fair Maid of Kent."[1] Edward gained Innocent VI's papal permission and absolution for this marriage to a blood-relative (as had Edward III when marrying Philippa of Hainault, being her second cousin) and married Joan in 10 October 1361 at Windsor Castle, prompting some controversy, mainly because of Joan's chequered marital history and the fact that marriage to an Englishwoman wasted an opportunity to form an alliance with a foreign power.

When in England, Edward's chief residence was at Wallingford Castle in Berkshire (now Oxfordshire) or Berkhamsted Castle in Hertfordshire.

He served as the king's representative in Aquitaine, where he and Joan kept a court which was considered among the most brilliant[clarification needed] of the time. It was the resort of exiled kings, like James IV of Majorca and Peter of Castile.

Peter of Castile, thrust from his throne by his illegitimate brother, Henry of Trastámara, offered Edward the lordship of Biscay in 1367, in return for the Black Prince's aid in recovering his throne. Edward was successful in the Battle of Nájera in which he soundly defeated the combined French and Castilian forces led by Bertrand du Guesclin.

During this period, he fathered two sons: Edward (27 January 1365–1372), who died at the age of 6; and Richard, born in 1367 and often called Richard of Bordeaux for his place of birth, who would later rule as Richard II of England. He had at least two illegitimate sons, both born before his marriage: Sir Roger Clarendon and Sir John Sounder.[2]

The Black Prince returned to England in January 1371 and died a few years later after a long lasting illness that may have been cancer or multiple sclerosis.1

Children of Edward, the Black Prince of England and Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward,_the_Black_Prince.

Richard II of England

M, b. 6 January 1367, d. circa 14 February 1400
Father*Edward, the Black Prince of England b. 15 Jun 1330, d. 8 Jun 1376
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385
     Richard II (6 January 1367 – c. 14 February 1400) was the eighth King of England of the House of Plantagenet. He ruled from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Richard was a son of Edward, the Black Prince and was born during the reign of his grandfather, Edward III. At the age of four, Richard became second in line to the throne when his older brother Edward of Angoulême died, and heir apparent when his father died in 1376. With Edward III's death the following year, Richard succeeded to the throne at the age of ten.

During Richard's first years as king, government was in the hands of a series of councils. The political community preferred this to a regency led by the king's uncle, John of Gaunt, yet Gaunt remained highly influential. The first major challenge of the reign was the Peasants' Revolt in 1381, which the young king handled well, playing a major part in suppressing the rebellion. In the following years, however, the king's dependence on a small number of courtiers caused discontent in the political community, and in 1387 control of government was taken over by a group of noblemen known as the Lords Appellant. By 1389 Richard had regained control, and for the next eight years governed in relative harmony with his former opponents. Then, in 1397, he took his revenge on the appellants, many of whom were executed or exiled. The next two years have been described by historians as Richard's "tyranny". In 1399, after John of Gaunt died, the king disinherited Gaunt's son, Henry of Bolingbroke, who had previously been exiled. Henry invaded England in June 1399 with a small force that quickly grew in numbers. Though he claimed initially that his goal was only to reclaim his patrimony, it soon became clear that he intended to claim the throne for himself. Meeting little resistance, Bolingbroke deposed Richard and had himself crowned as King Henry IV. Richard died in captivity early the next year; he was probably murdered.

As an individual, Richard was tall, good-looking and intelligent. Though probably not insane, as earlier historians used to believe, he seems to have suffered from certain personality disorders, especially towards the end of his reign. Less of a warrior than either his father or grandfather, he sought to bring an end to the Hundred Years' War that Edward III had started. He was a firm believer in the royal prerogative, something which led him to restrain the power of his nobility, and rely on a private retinue for military protection instead. He also cultivated a courtly atmosphere where the king was an elevated figure, and art and culture were at the centre, in contrast to the fraternal, martial court of his grandfather. Richard's posthumous reputation has to a large extent been shaped by Shakespeare, whose play Richard II portrayed Richard's misrule and Bolingbroke's deposition as responsible for the fifteenth-century Wars of the Roses. Contemporary historians do not accept this interpretation, while not thereby exonerating Richard from responsibility for his own deposition. Most authorities agree that, even though his policies were not unprecedented or entirely unrealistic, the way in which he carried them out was unacceptable to the political establishment, and this led to his downfall.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_II_of_England

Edward of Angoulême

M, b. after October 1361
Father*Edward, the Black Prince of England b. 15 Jun 1330, d. 8 Jun 1376
Mother*Joan, The Fair Maid of Kent b. 29 Sep 1328, d. 7 Aug 1385

Edmund Plantagenet

M, b. 1326, d. before 5 October 1331
Father*Edmund Plantagenet b. 1301, d. 1330
Mother*Margaret Wake b. c 1297, d. 29 Sep 1349

Margaret Plantagenet

F, b. 1327, d. 1352
Father*Edmund Plantagenet b. 1301, d. 1330
Mother*Margaret Wake b. c 1297, d. 29 Sep 1349
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was d'Albret.

John Plantagenet

M, b. 7 April 1330, d. 26 December 1352
Father*Edmund Plantagenet b. 1301, d. 1330
Mother*Margaret Wake b. c 1297, d. 29 Sep 1349

Hugh Courtenay

M, b. 22 March 1327, d. 23 January 1360
Father*Hugh Courtenay b. 12 Jul 1303, d. 2 May 1377
Mother*Margaret De Bohun b. 3 Apr 1311, d. 16 Dec 1391

William Courtenay

M, b. 1342, d. 31 July 1396
Father*Hugh Courtenay b. 12 Jul 1303, d. 2 May 1377
Mother*Margaret De Bohun b. 3 Apr 1311, d. 16 Dec 1391
     William Courtenay (c. 1342 – 31 July 1396), English prelate, was Archbishop of Canterbury, having previously been Bishop of Hereford and Bishop of London.

He was a younger son of Hugh de Courtenay, 10th Earl of Devon (d. 1377), and through his mother Margaret, daughter of Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford, was a great-grandson of Edward I.

Being a native of the west of England he was educated at Stapledon Hall, Oxford, and after graduating in law was chosen chancellor of the university in 1367. Courtenay's ecclesiastical and political career began about the same time. Having been made prebendary of Exeter, of Wells and of York, he was consecrated bishop of Hereford on 17 March 1370,[1] was translated to the see of London on 12 September 1375,[2] and became Archbishop of Canterbury on 30 July 1381, succeeding Simon of Sudbury in both these latter positions.[3]

As a politician the period of his activity coincides with the years of Edward III’s dotage, and with practically the whole of Richard II's reign. From the first he ranged himself among the opponents of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster; he was a firm upholder of the rights of the English Church, and was always eager to root out Lollardry. In 1373 he declared in convocation that he would not contribute to a subsidy until the evils from which the church suffered were removed; in 1375 he incurred the displeasure of the king by publishing a papal bull against the Florentines; and in 1377 his decided action during the quarrel between John of Gaunt and William of Wykeham ended in a temporary triumph for the bishop.

Wycliffe was another cause of difference between Lancaster and Courtenay. In 1377 the reformer appeared before Archbishop Sudbury and Courtenay, when an altercation between the duke and the bishop led to the dispersal of the court, and during the ensuing riot Lancaster probably owed his safety to the good offices of his foe. Having meanwhile become archbishop of Canterbury Courtenay summoned a synod, in London, the so-called "Earthquake Synod," which condemned the opinions of Wycliffe; he then attacked the Lollards at Oxford, and urged the bishops to imprison heretics.

He was for a short time chancellor of England during 1381,[4] and in January of 1382 he officiated at the marriage of Richard II with Anne of Bohemia, afterwards crowning the queen. In 1382 the archbishop’s visitation led to disputes with the bishops of Exeter and Salisbury, and Courtenay was only partially able to enforce the payment of a special tax to meet his expenses on this occasion. During his concluding years the archbishop appears to have upheld the papal authority in England, although not to the injury of the English Church.

He protested against the confirmation of the statute of provisors in 1390, and he was successful in slightly modifying the statute of praemunire in 1393. Disliking the extravagance of Richard II he publicly reproved the king, and after an angry scene the royal threats drove him for a time into Devon. In 1386 he was one of the commissioners appointed to reform the kingdom and the royal household, and in 1387 he arranged a peace between Richard and his enemies under Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester. Courtenay died at Maidstone on 31 July 1396,[3] and was buried towards the east end of the choir in Canterbury cathedral.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation.

Philip Courtenay

M, b. circa 1342, d. 29 July 1406
Father*Hugh Courtenay b. 12 Jul 1303, d. 2 May 1377
Mother*Margaret De Bohun b. 3 Apr 1311, d. 16 Dec 1391

Blanche Plantagenet

F, d. 1380
Father*Henry Plantagenet b. c 1281, d. 22 Sep 1345
Mother*Maud Chaworth b. 1282, d. b Dec 1322
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1317As of before 1317,her married name was Wake.

Thomas Wake

M, b. 1297, d. 31 May 1349
Father*John Wake b. 1268, d. 1300
Mother*Joan de Fiennes b. c 1273, d. 1309
     Thomas Wake, 2nd Baron Wake of Liddell (1297 – 31 May 1349), English baron, belonged to a Lincolnshire family which had lands also in Cumberland, being the son of John Wake (died 1300), who was summoned to parliament as a baron in 1295, and the grandson of Baldwin Wake (died 1282), both warriors of repute.

Among Thomas Wake's guardians were Piers Gaveston and Henry, Earl of Lancaster, whose daughter Blanche (d. 1380) he married before 1317. This lady was the niece of Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and her husband was thus attached to the Lancastrian party, but he did not follow Earl Thomas in the proceedings which led to his death in 1322. Hating the favourites of Edward II Wake joined Queen Isabella in 1326 and was a member of the small council which advised the young king, Edward III; soon, however, he broke away from the queen and her ally, Roger Mortimer, and in conjunction with his father-in-law, now earl of Lancaster, he joined the malcontent barons.

He was possibly implicated in the plot which cost his brother-in-law, Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, his life in 1330, and he fled to France, returning to England after the overthrow of Isabella and Mortimer. Edward III made him governor of the Channel Islands and he assisted Edward Bruce to invade Scotland, being afterwards sent on an errand to France. In 1341 he incurred the displeasure of the king and was imprisoned, but he had been restored and had been employed in Brittany and elsewhere when he died childless.

His estates passed to his sister Margaret (d. 1349), widow of Edmund, Earl of Kent, and her son John, 3rd Earl of Kent (d. 1352), and later to the Roland family. Wake founded a monastery Haltemprice Priory for the Austin canons at Newton near Cottingham, East Riding of Yorkshire where he is buried.1

Citations

  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Wake

John Comyn

M, d. 1314
Father*John Comyn d. 1306

Hugh Wake

M, d. 1241
     Sheriff of Yorkshire, who died on Crusade in Jerusalem in 1241.

Child of Hugh Wake and Joan de Stuteville

Nicholas de Stuteville

M
     Lord of Cottenham and Liddell.

Child of Nicholas de Stuteville

John Comyn

M, d. 1306
  • John Comyn died in 1306.

Child of John Comyn

Jean de Brienne

M

Child of Jean de Brienne and Jeanne de Chateaudun

Jeanne de Chateaudun

F, b. circa 1227, d. after 1252
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Brienne.
  • Jeanne de Chateaudun married Jean de Brienne.
  • Jeanne de Chateaudun was born circa 1227.
  • She died after 1252.

Child of Jeanne de Chateaudun and Jean de Brienne

Jacques de Conde

M

Child of Jacques de Conde

Peter I of Luxembourg

M, b. 1390, d. 31 August 1433
Father*John of Luxembourg
Mother*Marguerite of Enghien b. 1365

Child of Peter I of Luxembourg and Margaret de Baux

Margaret de Baux

F, b. 1394, d. 15 November 1469
Father*Francois de Baux
Mother*Sueva Orsini
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name8 May 1405As of 8 May 1405,her married name was of Luxembourg.

Child of Margaret de Baux and Peter I of Luxembourg

John of Luxembourg

M
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationJohn of Luxembourg was also known as of Beauvoir.
     Lord of Beauvoir.

Child of John of Luxembourg and Marguerite of Enghien

Marguerite of Enghien

F, b. 1365
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Luxembourg.

Child of Marguerite of Enghien and John of Luxembourg

Guy de Montfort

M
Father*Simon de Montfort b. 23 May 1208, d. 4 Aug 1265
Mother*Eleanor Plantagenet b. 1215, d. 13 Apr 1275

Child of Guy de Montfort and Margherita Aldobrandeschi

Margherita Aldobrandeschi

F
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Montfort.

Child of Margherita Aldobrandeschi and Guy de Montfort

Anastasia de Montfort

F
Father*Guy de Montfort
Mother*Margherita Aldobrandeschi
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Orsini.

Child of Anastasia de Montfort and Romano Orsini

Romano Orsini

M

Child of Romano Orsini and Anastasia de Montfort

Roberto Orsini

M, b. 1295, d. 1345
Father*Romano Orsini
Mother*Anastasia de Montfort

Child of Roberto Orsini and Sibilla del Balzo

Sibilla del Balzo

F
Father*Hugh de Baux
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationSibilla del Balzo was also known as de Baux.
Married NameHer married name was Orsini.

Child of Sibilla del Balzo and Roberto Orsini