Katherine Martha Houghton

F, b. 1878, d. 1951
Father*Alfred Augustus Houghton b. 1851, d. 1892
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Hepburn.

Child of Katherine Martha Houghton and Thomas N. Hepburn

Thomas N. Hepburn


Child of Thomas N. Hepburn and Katherine Martha Houghton

Katherine Houghton Hepburn

F, b. 12 May 1907, d. 12 May 1907
Katharine Hepburn
Father*Thomas N. Hepburn
Mother*Katherine Martha Houghton b. 1878, d. 1951
     American Actress. Four time Academy Award winning actress Katharine Hepburn maintained a successful acting career for over 70 years. Her notable performances in The African Queen and On Golden Pond, as well as countless other films, contributed to her title as the AFI's Greatest American Female Star.

Matilda Plantagenet

F, b. 1156, d. 28 June 1189
Father*King Henry II of England b. 5 Mar 1133, d. 6 Jul 1189
Mother*Eleanor of Aquitaine b. 1122, d. 1 Apr 1204
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationMatilda Plantagenet was also known as Maud.
Married Name1 February 1168As of 1 February 1168,her married name was of Saxony.
     Matilda of England (also called Maud; 1156 – 28 June 1189) was the eldest daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Through her marriage with Henry the Lion, she was Duchess of Saxony and later of Bavaria.

Matilda was a younger maternal half-sister of Marie de Champagne and Alix of France. She was a younger sister of William IX, Count of Poitiers and Henry the Young King. She was also an older sister of Richard I of England, Geoffrey II, Duke of Brittany, Leonora of Aquitaine, Joan of England and John of England. Matilda seems to have spent much of her early life in the company of her mother, Queen Eleanor.

In 1165 Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne, arrived at the court of King Henry II at Rouen, to negotiate a German match for Matilda. There was conflict during the negotiations, however, when Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester refused to greet the archbishop, alleging him to be a schismatic and a supporter of the anti-pope, Victor IV. The original plan to match a daughter of Henry II with a son of Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, was abandoned, and instead Matilda left England in September 1167 to marry Henry the Lion.

She married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Bavaria, on 1 February 1168 at Minden Cathedral. They had four sons and one daughter.1

Child of Matilda Plantagenet and Henry the Lion of Saxony


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_England,_Duchess_of_Saxony.

Henry the Lion of Saxony

M, b. 1129, d. 6 August 1195
     Henry the Lion (German: Heinrich der Löwe; 1129 – 6 August 1195) was a member of the Welf dynasty and Duke of Saxony, as Henry III, from 1142, and Duke of Bavaria, as Henry XII, from 1156, which duchies he held until 1180.

He was one of the most powerful German princes of his time, until the rival Hohenstaufen dynasty succeeded in isolating him and eventually deprived him of his duchies of Bavaria and Saxony during the reign of his cousin Frederick I and of Frederick's son and successor Henry VI.

At the height of his reign, Henry ruled over a vast territory stretching from the coast of the North and Baltic Seas to the Alps, and from Westphalia to Pomerania. Henry achieved this great power in part by his political and military acumen and in part through the legacies of his four grandparents.

Born in Ravensburg, he was the son of Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, who was the son of Duke Henry the Black and an heiress of the Billungs, former dukes of Saxony. Henry's mother was Gertrud, only daughter of Emperor Lothair III and his wife Richenza of Northeim, heiress of the Saxon territories of Northeim and the properties of the Brunones, counts of Braunschweig.

Henry's father died in 1139, aged 32, when Henry was still a child, he then ate a mouldy peice of cheese. King Conrad III had dispossessed Henry the Proud, who had been his rival for the crown in 1138, of his duchies in 1138 and 1139, handing Saxony to Albert the Bear and Bavaria to Leopold of Austria. Henry, however, did not relinquish his claims to his inheritance, and Conrad returned Saxony to him in 1142. A participant in the 1147 Wendish Crusade, Henry also reacquired Bavaria by a decision of the new Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1156.

Henry is the founder of Munich (1157/58; München) and Lübeck (1159); he also founded and developed the cities of Stade, Lüneburg and Braunschweig. In Braunschweig, his capital, he had a bronze lion, his heraldic animal, erected in the yard of his castle Dankwarderode in 1166 — the first bronze statue north of the Alps. Later, he had Brunswick Cathedral built close to the statue.

In 1147 Henry married Clementia of Zähringen, thereby gaining her hereditary territories in Swabia. He divorced her in 1162, apparently under pressure from Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, who did not cherish Guelphish possessions in his home area and offered Henry several fortresses in Saxony in exchange. In 1168 Henry married Matilda (1156 -1189), the daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and sister of Richard Lionheart.

Henry long and faithfully supported his older cousin, Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa), in his attempts to solidify his hold on the Imperial Crown and his repeated wars with the cities of Lombardy and the Popes, several times turning the tide of battle in Frederick's favor with his fierce Saxon knights. But in 1174, Henry refused to aid Frederick in a renewed invasion of Lombardy because he was preoccupied with securing his own borders in the East. He did not consider these Italian adventures worth the effort, unless Barbarossa presented Henry with the Saxon imperial city Goslar: a request Barbarossa refused.

Barbarossa's expedition into Lombardy ended in utter failure. He bitterly resented Henry for failing to support him. Taking advantage of the hostility of other German princes to Henry, who had successfully established a powerful and contiguous state comprising Saxony, Bavaria and substantial territories in the north and east of Germany, Frederick had Henry tried in absentia for insubordination by a court of bishops and princes in 1180. Declaring that Imperial law overruled traditional German law, the court had Henry stripped of his lands and declared him an outlaw. Frederick then invaded Saxony with an Imperial army to bring his cousin to his knees. Henry's allies deserted him, and he finally had to submit in November 1181 at a Reichstag in Erfurt. He was exiled from Germany in 1182 for three years, stayed with his father-in-law, Henry II of England, in Normandy before being allowed back into Germany in 1185. He was exiled again in 1188. His wife Matilda died in 1189.

When Frederick Barbarossa went on the Crusade of 1189, Henry returned to Saxony, mobilized an army of his faithful, and conquered and ravaged the rich city of Bardowick as punishment for her disloyalty. Only the churches were left standing. Barbarossa's son, Emperor Henry VI, again defeated the Duke, but in 1194, with his end approaching, he made his peace with the Emperor, and returned to his much diminished lands around Braunschweig (Brunswick), where he finished his days as duke of Braunschweig, peacefully sponsoring arts and architecture. He died on 6 August 1195.1

Child of Henry the Lion of Saxony and Matilda Plantagenet


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_the_Lion

Wilhelm Brunswick

M, b. 1184, d. 1213
Father*Henry the Lion of Saxony b. 1129, d. 6 Aug 1195
Mother*Matilda Plantagenet b. 1156, d. 28 Jun 1189
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationWilhelm Brunswick was also known as of Winchester.
Name VariationWilhelm Brunswick was also known as William.
     William (11 April 1184, Winchester – 13 December 1213), called William of Winchester, William Longsword, or William of Lüneburg, was the youngest son of Duke Henry the Lion.

William was born in England during his father's exile; he remained there when Henry returned to Saxony and was raised at Richard Lionheart's court. When Henry died in 1195, William inherited Henry's properties around Lüneburg, near Lauenburg, and in the eastern Harz.

In 1202, William married Helen, daughter of King Valdemar I of Denmark. Their only child was Otto (1204-1252), who inherited his father's property.1

Child of Wilhelm Brunswick and Helen of Denmark


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_of_Winchester

Otto I of Lüneburg

M, b. 1204, d. 1252
Father*Wilhelm Brunswick b. 1184, d. 1213
Mother*Helen of Denmark b. c 1177, d. 1233
     Otto I of Brunswick-Lüneburg (about 1204 – 9 June 1252) was the first duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1235 until his death. He is called Otto the Child to distinguish him from his uncle, Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor.

Otto was born around 1204 as the only son of William of Winchester, the youngest son of Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony. He inherited his father's properties in Saxony in 1213. The death of the Prince Palatine, in 1214, may be said to have opened to him a more splendid succession than what belonged to the very circumscribed patrimony of his father; but as his uncle Henry hesitated between a desire to aggrandize his own children (daughters) and a sense of what was due to the male representative of his name and family, Otto reaped little advantage from these enlarged prospects.1

Child of Otto I of Lüneburg and Matilda of Brandenburg


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_the_Child,_Duke_of_Brunswick-L%C3%BCneburg.

Helen of Denmark

F, b. circa 1177, d. 1233
Father*King Valdemar I of Denmark b. 14 Jan 1131, d. 12 May 1182
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1202As of 1202,her married name was Brunswick.

Child of Helen of Denmark and Wilhelm Brunswick

King Valdemar I of Denmark

M, b. 14 January 1131, d. 12 May 1182
  • King Valdemar I of Denmark was born on 14 January 1131.
  • He died on 12 May 1182 at age 51.
     Valdemar I of Denmark (14 January 1131 – 12 May 1182), also known as Valdemar the Great, was King of Denmark from 1157 until 1182.

He was the son of Canute Lavard, a chivalrous and popular Danish prince, who was the eldest son of Eric I of Denmark. Valdemar's father was murdered days before his birth; his mother, Ingeborg, daughter of Mstislav I of Kiev, named him after her grandfather, Vladimir Monomakh of Kiev.

As an heir to the throne, and with his rivals quickly gaining power, he was raised in the court of Asser Rig of Fjenneslev, together with Asser's sons, Absalon and Esbern Snare, who would become his trusted friends and ministers.

When Valdemar was sixteen years old, King Erik III abdicated and a civil war erupted. The pretenders to the throne were: Sweyn III Grathe, son of Eric II Emune; Canute (Knud V Magnussen), son of Prince Magnus who was the son of King Niels; and Valdemar himself (he was holding Jutland, at least southern Jutland, as his possession). The civil war lasted the better part of ten years.

In 1157 King Sweyn hosted a great banquet for Canute, Absalon and Valdemar during which he planned to dispose of all his rivals. King Canute was killed, but Absalon and Valdemar escaped. Valdemar returned to Jutland. Sweyn quickly launched an invasion, only to be defeated by Valdemar at Grathe Hede. He was killed during flight, supposedly by a group of peasants who stumbled upon him as he was fleeing from the battlefield.

Valdemar, having outlived all his rival pretenders, became the sole King of Denmark.

In 1158 Absalon was elected Bishop of Roskilde, and Valdemar made him his chief friend and advisor. He reorganized and rebuilt war-torn Denmark. At Absalon's instigation he declared war upon the Wends who were raiding the Danish coasts. They inhabited Pomerania and the island of Rügen in the Baltic Sea. In 1168 the Wendish capital, Arkona, was taken, and the Wends became Christians and subject to Danish suzerainty. Danish influence reached into Pomerania.

Valdemar's reign saw the rise of Denmark, which reached its zenith under his second son Valdemar.

Valdemar married Sofia of Minsk (c. 1141–1198), half-sister of Canute V of Denmark and daughter of Dowager Queen Rikissa of Sweden from her marriage with Volodar of Minsk (Vladimir or Volodar Glebovich of the Rurikids, died 1167), ruling Prince of Principality of Minsk.1

Child of King Valdemar I of Denmark


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Valdemar_I_of_Denmark

Agnes Von Brunswick Luneburg

F, b. 1246, d. 1302
Father*Otto I of Lüneburg b. 1204, d. 1252
Mother*Matilda of Brandenburg b. 1210, d. 1261
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Rügen.

Child of Agnes Von Brunswick Luneburg and Wizlaw II of Rügen

Princess Margarethe of Rügen

F, b. 1265, d. 1320
Father*Wizlaw II of Rügen
Mother*Agnes Von Brunswick Luneburg b. 1246, d. 1302
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Pomerania.

Child of Princess Margarethe of Rügen and Bogislaw IV of Pomerania

Euphemia of Pomerania

F, b. 1290, d. 1330
Father*Bogislaw IV of Pomerania
Mother*Princess Margarethe of Rügen b. 1265, d. 1320
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Denmark.
Name VariationEuphemia of Pomerania was also known as Eufemia.

Child of Euphemia of Pomerania and King Christopher II of Denmark

Valdemar IV of Denmark

M, b. 1320, d. 24 October 1375
Father*King Christopher II of Denmark b. 1276, d. 1332
Mother*Euphemia of Pomerania b. 1290, d. 1330
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationValdemar IV of Denmark was also known as Valdemar Christoffersson.

Child of Valdemar IV of Denmark and Helvig of Sønderjylland

Margaret I of Denmark

F, b. 1353, d. 1412
Margaret I of Denmark
Father*Valdemar IV of Denmark b. 1320, d. 24 Oct 1375
Mother*Helvig of Sønderjylland
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Norway.
     Margaret I (Danish: Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Norwegian: Margrete Valdemarsdotter, Swedish: Margareta Valdemarsdotter) (1353 – 28 October 1412) was Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (also later Regent of Sweden), and founder of the Kalmar Union, which united the Scandinavian countries for over a century. She was the only queen regnant of Denmark until Margrethe II five and a half centuries later.

She is known in Denmark as "Margrethe I", to distinguish her from the current queen. Denmark did not have a tradition of allowing women to rule and so when her son died she was named "All-powerful Lady and Mistress (Regent) of the Kingdom of Denmark.[1] She only styled herself Queen of Denmark during 1375. Usually Margrethe referred to herself as "Margrethe, by the grace of God, Valdemar the King of Denmark's daughter" and "Denmark's rightful heir" when referring to her position in Denmark. Others simply referred to her as the "Lady Queen" without specifying what she was Queen (or female king) of, but not so Pope Boniface IX, who wrote to her as "Queen of Denmark" or "Queen of Denmark, Norway and Sweden".

With regards to Norway, she was known as Queen (Queen-consort, then Dowager Queen) and Regent. In Sweden, she was Dowager Queen and Plenipotentiary Ruler. When she married Haakon, in 1363, he was yet co-King of Sweden, making Margaret Queen, and despite being deposed, they never relinquished the title. When the Swedes expelled Albert I in 1389, in theory, Margaret simply resumed her original position.

Margaret was born in Vordingborg Castle, the daughter of Valdemar IV of Denmark and Helvig of Sønderjylland. She married, at the age of ten, King Haakon VI of Norway, who was the younger and only surviving son to Magnus VII of Norway, Magnus II of Sweden.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_I_of_Denmark

King Christopher II of Denmark

M, b. 1276, d. 1332

Child of King Christopher II of Denmark and Euphemia of Pomerania

Helvig of Sønderjylland

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Denmark.

Child of Helvig of Sønderjylland and Valdemar IV of Denmark

Bogislaw IV of Pomerania


Child of Bogislaw IV of Pomerania and Princess Margarethe of Rügen

Wizlaw II of Rügen


Child of Wizlaw II of Rügen and Agnes Von Brunswick Luneburg

Matilda of Brandenburg

F, b. 1210, d. 1261
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1228As of 1228,her married name was of Lüneburg.
     Matilda of Brandenburg (c. 1210 - 10 June 1261) was a daughter of Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg, and Matilda of Lusatia. In 1228 she married Duke Otto I of Lüneburg, a son of William of Winchester. She died on 10 June 1261 in Lüneburg. Mathilde and Otto had the following known children:

Elizabeth (died 1266), married William II of Holland
Helen (died 1273), married Albert II, Duke of Saxony and Hermann II, Landgrave of Thuringia
Adelaide (died 1274), married Henry I, Landgrave of Hesse
Matilda (died around 1295), married Henry II, Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben
Agnes, married Wizlaw II, Duke of Rügen
Albert (died 1279)
John (died 1277)
Otto, Bishop of Hildesheim (died 1279)
Conrad, Bishop of Verden (died 1300).1

Child of Matilda of Brandenburg and Otto I of Lüneburg


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mathilde_von_Brandenburg

Margaret Atheling

F, b. 1045, d. 1093
Father*(?) Atheling
Mother*Agatha Von Brunswick b. 1025, d. 1066
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was of Scotland.

Child of Margaret Atheling and Malcolm III of Scotland

Agatha Von Brunswick

F, b. 1025, d. 1066
Father*Liudolf of Brunswick b. c 1003, d. 23 Apr 1038
Mother*Gertrude Von Egisheim b. 999, d. 1077
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Atheling.

Child of Agatha Von Brunswick and (?) Atheling

(?) Atheling


Child of (?) Atheling and Agatha Von Brunswick

Gertrude Von Egisheim

F, b. 999, d. 1077
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Von Braunschweig.
Married NameHer married name was Von Brunswick.
  • Gertrude Von Egisheim married Liudolf of Brunswick.
  • Gertrude Von Egisheim was born in 999.
  • She died in 1077.

Children of Gertrude Von Egisheim and Liudolf of Brunswick

Liudolf of Brunswick

M, b. circa 1003, d. 23 April 1038
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationLiudolf of Brunswick was also known as of Frisia.
Name VariationLiudolf of Brunswick was also known as Von Brunswick.
  • Liudolf of Brunswick married Gertrude Von Egisheim.
  • Liudolf of Brunswick was born circa 1003.
  • He died on 23 April 1038.
     Liudolf of Brunswick (about 1003 – 23 April 1038) was margrave of Frisia, count of Brunswick, count in the Derlingau and the Gudingau. He was a member of the Brunonen family.

Liudolf was a descendant of the Saxon family of the Brunonen. He was a son of Bruno I, Count of Brunswick, and Gisela of Swabia. The later Roman Emperor Henry III was his half brother. He married Gertrude and had four children. The Friesian counties Oostergo, Zuidergo and Westergo were controlled by him. Until the end of his life he administered the Frisian areas, and for two more generations the Brunonen family line inherited the title. How the Brunonen came to their position in the counties is not known. There is a theory that Liudolf took advantage of the reign of violence between Friesland Vlie and Lauwers of the counts of Holland. Not much is known about his life. He died in 1038 and was succeeded by his son, Bruno II. His daughter Matilda married Henry I of France, the widower of her aunt. One popular theory of the origins of Agatha, wife of Edward the Exile makes her another daughter.

Liudolf and his wife Gertrud had the following children:

Brun II (around 1024 – 26 June 1057)
Egbert (died 1068)
Matilda (died 1044), married King Henry I of France
Ida of Elsdorf.1

Children of Liudolf of Brunswick and Gertrude Von Egisheim


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liudolf,_Margrave_of_Frisia.

Ida Von Elsdorf

F, b. circa 1021, d. 1083
Father*Liudolf of Brunswick b. c 1003, d. 23 Apr 1038
Mother*Gertrude Von Egisheim b. 999, d. 1077

Matilda of Frisia

F, d. 1044
Father*Liudolf of Brunswick b. c 1003, d. 23 Apr 1038
Mother*Gertrude Von Egisheim b. 999, d. 1077
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1043As of 1043,her married name was of France.
     Matilda of Frisia (died 1044) was the second wife and first Queen of Henry I, King of the Franks.[1] She was the daughter of Liudulf, Margrave of Frisia and Gertrude. Her date of birth is unknown.

Matilda and Henry were married in 1043 after the death of his first wife, also named Matilda, daughter of the Emperor Conrad II. She died the following year during a Caesarean section. Henry married Anne of Kiev after her death.[1]1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_of_Frisia

John de Warenne

M, b. 30 June 1286, d. June 1347
Father*William de Warenne b. 1256, d. 15 Dec 1286
Mother*Joan de Vere
     John de Warenne (30 June 1286 – June 1347), 8th Earl of Surrey or Warenne, was the last Warenne earl of Surrey.

He was the son of William de Warenne, the only son of John de Warenne, 7th Earl of Surrey. His mother was Joan, daughter of Robert de Vere, 5th Earl of Oxford.

Warenne was only six months old when his father died, and was 8 years old when his mother died. He succeeded his grandfather as earl when he was 19.

He was one of the great nobles offended by the rise of Edward II's favorite Piers Gaveston, and helped secure Gaveston's 1308 banishment. The two were somewhat reconciled after Gaveston's return the next year, but in 1311 Warenne was one of the nobles who captured Gaveston. He was however unhappy about Gaveston's execution at the behest of the earl of Warwick, which pushed him back into the king's camp.

The baronial opposition was led by the king's cousin Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, and he and Warenne became bitter enemies. Private war erupted between the two, and over the new few years Warenne lost a good part of his estates to Lancaster.

Warenne was one of the four earls who captured the two Roger Mortimers, and in 1322 he was one of the nobles who condemned to death the earl of Lancaster.

Warenne and his brother-in-law Edmund Fitzalan, 9th Earl of Arundel were the last two earls to remain loyal to Edward II after the rise to power of Queen Isabella and Roger Mortimer. After Arundel's execution he went over to the queen's side, urging Edward II's abdication in 1327.

He was the guardian of his cousin Edward Balliol, and after Balliol lay claim to the Scottish throne, accompanied him on his campaign in Lothian. Balliol created Warenne earl of Strathern, but this was in name only for the properties of the earldom were held by another claimant.

Warenne died in 1347 and is buried at the monastery of Lewes. He was succeeded as earl by his nephew Richard Fitzalan, who was also earl of Arundel.

On 25 May 1306 Warenne married Joan of Bar, daughter of count Henry III of Bar and Eleanor of England, eldest daughter of king Edward I of England. The two were soon estranged and live apart, and had no children, though the marriage was never dissolved.

Warenne instead took up with Matilda de Nerford, by whom he had several illegitimate children, and later with Isabella Holland, sister of Thomas Holland, later earl of Kent.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_de_Warenne,_8th_Earl_of_Surrey.

Isabel de Bolebec

F, b. 1165, d. 3 February 1245
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.

Child of Isabel de Bolebec and Robert de Vere

Alice de Sanford

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.

Children of Alice de Sanford and Robert de Vere

Margaret Mortimer

F, d. 1297
Father*Roger Mortimer b. 1231, d. 30 Oct 1282
Mother*Maud de Braose b. 1224, d. c 1300
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.

Child of Margaret Mortimer and Robert de Vere