Georgina Kobditch

F, b. circa 1909
Father*George Kobditch b. c 1883, d. b 1930
Mother*Flora E. Stuer b. Apr 1883, d. a Apr 1930
Life EventDateDescription
Birthcirca 1909Georgina Kobditch was born circa 1909 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of George Kobditch and Flora E. Stuer.

Richard Kobditch

M, b. circa 1919
Father*George Kobditch b. c 1883, d. b 1930
Mother*Flora E. Stuer b. Apr 1883, d. a Apr 1930
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationRichard Kobditch was also known as Kobdish.
Life EventDateDescription
Birthcirca 1919Richard Kobditch was born circa 1919 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of George Kobditch and Flora E. Stuer.
Census DateLocationDescription
16 April 1930Platteville, Grant, WisconsinRichard Kobditch was listed as a son in Flora E. Stuer's household on the 1930 Census at Platteville, Grant, Wisconsin.1

Citations

  1. [S250] U.S. Federal Census 1930 U.S. Federal Census, by Ancestry.com, ED41. Dwelling 134.

Nicolaus Bierman

M, b. 9 April 1867, d. 12 December 1956
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationNicolaus Bierman was also known as Nicholas.
Name VariationNicolaus Bierman was also known as Nicklas.
Name VariationNicolaus Bierman was also known as Nick.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth9 April 1867Nicolaus Bierman was born on 9 April 1867 at Wisconsin.
Marriage12 May 1896He married Anna Neis on 12 May 1896 at Grant, Wisconsin.
Death12 December 1956Nicolaus Bierman died on 12 December 1956 at age 89.
Census DateLocationDescription
12 April 1930Harrison, Grant, WisconsinNicolaus Bierman was listed as the head of a family on the 1930 Census at Harrison, Grant, Wisconsin.1

Children of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis

Citations

  1. [S250] U.S. Federal Census 1930 U.S. Federal Census, by Ancestry.com, ED17. Dwelling 74.

Anna Neis

F, b. September 1871, d. after April 1930
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAnna Neis was also known as Annie.
Married Name12 May 1896As of 12 May 1896,her married name was Bierman.
Life EventDateDescription
BirthSeptember 1871Anna Neis was born in September 1871 at Wisconsin.
Marriage12 May 1896She married Nicolaus Bierman on 12 May 1896 at Grant, Wisconsin.
Deathafter April 1930Anna Neis died after April 1930.
Census DateLocationDescription
12 April 1930Harrison, Grant, WisconsinAnna Neis was listed as wife in Nicolaus Bierman's household on the 1930 Census at Harrison, Grant, Wisconsin.1
  • Anna Neis had 3 with 1 living in 1900 children.
  • She had 7 with 5 living in 1910 children.

Children of Anna Neis and Nicolaus Bierman

Citations

  1. [S250] U.S. Federal Census 1930 U.S. Federal Census, by Ancestry.com, ED17. Dwelling 74.

Laura M. Bierman

F, b. 28 March 1902, d. 25 November 2006
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Mrs Bernard J Pluemer (Laura M Bierman) 21 Feb 1922-Colorized
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name21 February 1922As of 21 February 1922,her married name was Pluemer.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth28 March 1902Laura M. Bierman was born on 28 March 1902 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.
Marriage21 February 1922Laura M. Bierman married Bernard Joseph Pluemer, son of Joseph F. Pluemer and Josephine M. Langmeier, on 21 February 1922 Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait.
Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait 21 Feb 1922-Colorized
Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait 21 Feb 1922
Death25 November 2006Laura M. Bierman died on 25 November 2006 at age 104 Laura M. Pluemer of Tennyson, died Saturday, Nov. 25, 2006, peacefully at home, at age 104. Laura was born on March 28, 1902, in Harrison Township. She was married to Ben Joseph Pluemer on Feb. 21, 1922, at St. Andrew Catholic Church, Tennyson. Together they farmed in British Hollow and then moved to Harrison Township, where they farmed with their sons. After retirement, they moved to Tennyson, in 1966. Laura loved fishing, knitting, crocheting, quilting, cards and kept a continuous diary since World War II, when her son Gerald was in Europe. She also loved cooking and was known for her wonderful culinary skills. She enjoyed cooking for her family, which she did every Sunday up until her death. Everyone in Tennyson/ Potosi area will never forget her many pies, especially her raisin cream pie. Laura was a long time member of St. Andrew Catholic Church. Laura is survived by 21 grandchildren; 57 great-grandchildren; 20 great-great-grandchildren; two sisters-in-law, Ruth Bierman and Margaret Bierman; nieces and nephews; and other relatives and friends. She was preceded in death by her husband, Ben J. Pluemer, on Dec. 12, 1971; she was also preceded in death by her parents; her two sons, Gerald (Joyce) Pluemer and Wilfred (Mary) Pluemer; her granddaughter, Karen Eveland; her grandson, Michael Pluemer; her three brothers, Peter, Walter and Oliver; and her four sisters, Huldah, Magdalena, Lillian and Viola. Funeral services will be held on Tuesday, Nov. 28, 2006, at 11 a.m. at ST. ANDREW CATHOLIC CHURCH, in Tennyson, with the Rev. Richard Leffler officiating. Burial will be at the church cemetery. Visitation will be held from 3 p.m. until 8 p.m. Monday, Nov. 27, 2006, at MARTIN FUNERAL HOME, Potosi, with a Scripture Service at 3 p.m. Friends are also welcome on Tuesday from 10 a.m. until the time of services at the church.
  • In February 1947 25th wedding anniversary of Ben and Laura (Bierman) Pluemer.
    Dubuque Telegraph Herald February 27, 1947 - 25th wedding anniversary of Ben and Laura (Bierman) Pluemer

Children of Laura M. Bierman and Bernard Joseph Pluemer

Lillie M. Bierman

F, b. 30 January 1904, d. before 2006
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationLillie M. Bierman was also known as Lillian C.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth30 January 1904Lillie M. Bierman was born on 30 January 1904 at Grant, Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.
Deathbefore 2006Lillie M. Bierman died before 2006.

Walter A. Bierman

M, b. 6 March 1906, d. 14 October 1986
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Life EventDateDescription
Birth6 March 1906Walter A. Bierman was born on 6 March 1906 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.
Marriage22 October 1929Walter A. Bierman married Margaret Schollmeyer, daughter of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra, on 22 October 1929.
Death14 October 1986Walter A. Bierman died on 14 October 1986 at age 80.
  • Walter A. Bierman obtained US Social Security Card at Wisconsin; last residence Prairie Du Chien, Crawford, Wisconsin.

Viola E. Bierman

F, b. 18 May 1909, d. 8 May 1998
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Kress.
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageViola E. Bierman married George Kress.
Birth18 May 1909Viola E. Bierman was born on 18 May 1909 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.
Death8 May 1998Viola E. Bierman died on 8 May 1998 at age 88.
Census DateLocationDescription
12 April 1930Harrison, Grant, WisconsinViola E. Bierman was listed as a daughter in Nicolaus Bierman's household on the 1930 Census at Harrison, Grant, Wisconsin.1

Child of Viola E. Bierman and George Kress

Citations

  1. [S250] U.S. Federal Census 1930 U.S. Federal Census, by Ancestry.com, ED17. Dwelling 74.

Peter Bierman

M, b. before 1900, d. before 1900
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Life EventDateDescription
Birthbefore 1900Peter Bierman was born before 1900.
Deathbefore 1900He died before 1900.
He was the son of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.

Huldah Bierman

F, b. December 1896, d. before November 2006
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationHuldah Bierman was also known as Huldy.
Life EventDateDescription
BirthDecember 1896Huldah Bierman was born in December 1896 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.
Deathbefore November 2006Huldah Bierman died before November 2006.

Magdalena Bierman

F, b. before 1900, d. before 1900
Father*Nicolaus Bierman b. 9 Apr 1867, d. 12 Dec 1956
Mother*Anna Neis b. Sep 1871, d. a Apr 1930
Life EventDateDescription
Birthbefore 1900Magdalena Bierman was born before 1900.
Deathbefore 1900She died before 1900.
She was the daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis.

Bernard Joseph Pluemer

M, b. February 1900, d. 12 December 1971
Father*Joseph F. Pluemer b. 27 Jun 1870, d. 25 Oct 1945
Mother*Josephine M. Langmeier b. 11 Sep 1880, d. 6 Apr 1957
Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer 21 Feb 1922-Colorized
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationBernard Joseph Pluemer was also known as Ben Joseph.
Name VariationBernard Joseph Pluemer was also known as Joseph Ben.
Life EventDateDescription
BirthFebruary 1900Bernard Joseph Pluemer was born in February 1900 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of Joseph F. Pluemer and Josephine M. Langmeier.
Marriage21 February 1922Bernard Joseph Pluemer married Laura M. Bierman, daughter of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis, on 21 February 1922 Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait.
Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait 21 Feb 1922-Colorized
Bernard J (Ben) Pluemer and Laura M Bierman wedding portrait 21 Feb 1922
Death12 December 1971Bernard Joseph Pluemer died on 12 December 1971 at age 71 Bernard Pluemer obituary.
The Capital Times (Madison, Wisconsin) 14 Dec 1971 - Bernard Pluemer obituary
Census DateLocationDescription
1 June 1900Potosi, Grant, WisconsinBernard Joseph Pluemer was listed as a son in Joseph F. Pluemer's household on the 1900 Census at Potosi, Grant, Wisconsin; living next door to Peter Pluemer.1
  • In February 1947 25th wedding anniversary of Ben and Laura (Bierman) Pluemer.
    Dubuque Telegraph Herald February 27, 1947 - 25th wedding anniversary of Ben and Laura (Bierman) Pluemer

Children of Bernard Joseph Pluemer and Laura M. Bierman

Citations

  1. [S245] U.S. Federal Census 1900 U.S. Federal Census, by Ancestry.com, ED51. Dwelling 144.

Gerald Pluemer

M, b. 1 May 1923, d. 1 July 2005
Father*Bernard Joseph Pluemer b. Feb 1900, d. 12 Dec 1971
Mother*Laura M. Bierman b. 28 Mar 1902, d. 25 Nov 2006
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageGerald Pluemer married Joyce M. Kemper.
Birth1 May 1923Gerald Pluemer was born on 1 May 1923.
He was the son of Bernard Joseph Pluemer and Laura M. Bierman.
Death1 July 2005Gerald Pluemer died on 1 July 2005 at age 82.

Joyce M. Kemper

F, b. 5 January 1929, d. 1 June 1989
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Pluemer.
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageJoyce M. Kemper married Gerald Pluemer, son of Bernard Joseph Pluemer and Laura M. Bierman.
Birth5 January 1929Joyce M. Kemper was born on 5 January 1929.
Death1 June 1989She died on 1 June 1989 at age 60.

Wilfred N. Pluemer

M, b. 26 October 1925, d. 13 August 1976
Father*Bernard Joseph Pluemer b. Feb 1900, d. 12 Dec 1971
Mother*Laura M. Bierman b. 28 Mar 1902, d. 25 Nov 2006
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageWilfred N. Pluemer married Mary J. Kuehl.
Birth26 October 1925Wilfred N. Pluemer was born on 26 October 1925.
He was the son of Bernard Joseph Pluemer and Laura M. Bierman.
Death13 August 1976Wilfred N. Pluemer died on 13 August 1976 at age 50.

Mary J. Kuehl

F, b. 1926, d. 1991
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Pluemer.
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageMary J. Kuehl married Wilfred N. Pluemer, son of Bernard Joseph Pluemer and Laura M. Bierman.
Birth1926Mary J. Kuehl was born in 1926.
Death1991She died in 1991.

Margaret Schollmeyer

F, b. 7 April 1908, d. 7 July 2007
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationMargaret Schollmeyer was also known as Margie.
Name VariationMargaret Schollmeyer was also known as Marguerite.
Married Name22 October 1929As of 22 October 1929,her married name was Bierman.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth7 April 1908Margaret Schollmeyer was born on 7 April 1908 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Marriage22 October 1929Margaret Schollmeyer married Walter A. Bierman, son of Nicolaus Bierman and Anna Neis, on 22 October 1929.
Death7 July 2007Margaret Schollmeyer died on 7 July 2007 at age 99 Margaret "Margie" Bierman, age 99, of Prairie du Chien, passed away Saturday, July 7, 2007, at the Prairie Maison Care Center.
She was born April 7, 1908, in Cuba City, daughter of William and Martha (Vondra) Schollmeyer. She married Walter Bierman on Oct. 22, 1929, at the Holy Ghost Catholic Church in Dickeyville. He preceded her in death Oct. 14, 1986. She and her husband farmed in the Brodtville area and enjoyed a good card game especially euchre and 500. She was a very devout Catholic and a great cook. Margie was a beloved wife, mother, grandmother, great grandmother, sister and friend and will be sadly missed by her family and many friends.
She is survived by a son Lyle (Frances) Bierman of Sauk City; two daughters Darlene (James) Gerke of La Crosse and Patricia Heer of Bagley; a brother Paul Schollmeyer of Dubuque, IA; 10 grandchildren; 21 great-grandchildren and two great-great-grandchildren. She was preceded in death by her parents; her husband; six brothers; Charles, Irvan, Vernon, Bernard, Joe and Paul along with two sisters, Dorothy Nihles and Marie Wallenhorst.
Funeral services will be Tuesday, July 10, 2007, at 11 a.m. at the Garrity Funeral Home Chapel, Rev. James Warosh S.J. officiating, with burial in the Evergreen Cemetery, both in Prairie du Chien. Friends may call at the funeral home on Tuesday, July 10, 2007, from 10 a.m. until the time of services. www.garrityfuneralhome.com.

William C. Schollmeyer

M, b. 1877, d. 1970
Father*Carl Joseph Schollmeyer b. 17 May 1841, d. 22 Mar 1931
Mother*Wilhelmina Vogt b. 3 Mar 1846, d. 27 Apr 1920
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageWilliam C. Schollmeyer married Martha Vondra.
Birth1877William C. Schollmeyer was born in 1877 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of Carl Joseph Schollmeyer and Wilhelmina Vogt.
Death1970William C. Schollmeyer died in 1970.

Children of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra

Martha Vondra

F, b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Schollmeyer.
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageMartha Vondra married William C. Schollmeyer, son of Carl Joseph Schollmeyer and Wilhelmina Vogt.
Birth1887Martha Vondra was born in 1887 at Wisconsin.
Death1963She died in 1963.

Children of Martha Vondra and William C. Schollmeyer

Paul Schollmeyer

M, b. 18 September 1927, d. 27 June 2018
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Life EventDateDescription
MarriagePaul Schollmeyer married Maria A. Giunta.
Birth18 September 1927Paul Schollmeyer was born on 18 September 1927.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Death27 June 2018Paul Schollmeyer died on 27 June 2018 at age 90.

Charles Schollmeyer

M, b. 26 September 1906, d. March 1981
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Life EventDateDescription
Birth26 September 1906Charles Schollmeyer was born on 26 September 1906 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
DeathMarch 1981Charles Schollmeyer died in March 1981 at age 74.

Ervin W. Schollmeyer

M, b. 26 January 1916, d. 28 September 1997
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationErvin W. Schollmeyer was also known as Irvan.
Name VariationErvin W. Schollmeyer was also known as Irvin.
Life EventDateDescription
MarriageErvin W. Schollmeyer married Margaret Timmerman, daughter of Peter H. Timmerman and Christina C. Folmer.
Birth26 January 1916Ervin W. Schollmeyer was born on 26 January 1916 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Death28 September 1997Ervin W. Schollmeyer died on 28 September 1997 at age 81.

Vernon D. Schollmeyer

M, b. 19 August 1922, d. December 1980
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Life EventDateDescription
Birth19 August 1922Vernon D. Schollmeyer was born on 19 August 1922 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
DeathDecember 1980Vernon D. Schollmeyer died in December 1980 at age 58.

Bernard Schollmeyer

M, b. 30 June 1919, d. August 1976
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Life EventDateDescription
Birth30 June 1919Bernard Schollmeyer was born on 30 June 1919 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
DeathAugust 1976Bernard Schollmeyer died in August 1976 at age 57.

Joseph Schollmeyer

M, b. 24 February 1914, d. April 1977
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationJoseph Schollmeyer was also known as Joe.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth24 February 1914Joseph Schollmeyer was born on 24 February 1914 at Wisconsin.
He was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
DeathApril 1977Joseph Schollmeyer died in April 1977 at age 63.

Paul Schollmeyer

M, d. before July 2007
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Life EventDateDescription
Paul Schollmeyer was the son of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Deathbefore July 2007Paul Schollmeyer died before July 2007.

Dorothy Schollmeyer

F, b. 5 March 1910, d. 2 June 2004
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name21 October 1930As of 21 October 1930,her married name was Nihles.
Life EventDateDescription
Birth5 March 1910Dorothy Schollmeyer was born on 5 March 1910 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Marriage21 October 1930Dorothy Schollmeyer married Raymond N. Nihles on 21 October 1930.
Death2 June 2004Dorothy Schollmeyer died on 2 June 2004 at age 94 Dorothy C. Nihles, age 94, of Lancaster, died on Tuesday, June 2, 2004, at her home. She was born on March 5, 1910, in Grant County, the daughter of William and Martha (Vondra) Schollmeyer. On Oct. 21, 1930, she was united in marriage to Raymond N. Nihles at Holy Ghost Catholic Church in Dickeyville. Together they farmed for many years in the south Lancaster area. In 1974, they retired and moved to Lancaster. She was a devoted member of St. Clement Catholic Church in Lancaster. Dorothy put a great deal of hard work into gardening, her flowers, her yard, and canning. She enjoyed her grandchildren, playing cards and crocheting. She will be dearly missed by family and friends. Surviving are two sons, Robert N. (Dolores) Nihles, Platteville, and Merlyn (Mary) Nihles, Mineral Point; two daughters, Kathleen (Gerald) Koeller, Potosi, and Judy (Stanley) Henry, Platteville; a daughter-in-law, Gwen Nihles, Lancaster; 24 grandchildren; 39 great-grandchildren; four great-great-grandchildren; a sister, Margaret Bierman, Prairie du Chien; a brother, Paul (Maria) Schollmeyer, Dubuque, Iowa; and a sister-in-law, Margie Schollmeyer, Cuba City. She was preceded in death by her husband, Raymond, on Aug. 24, 1987; a son, Vernon; her parents; three grandchildren, Steven, Sharon and Randy Nihles; five brothers, Charles, Irvin, Joseph, Bernard and Vernon Schollmeyer; and her sister, Marie Wallenhorst. Funeral services will be held on Friday, June 4, 2004, at 10:30 a.m. at ST. CLEMENT CATHOLIC CHURCH in Lancaster, with Monsignor Daniel Ganshert officiating. Burial will be in St. Clement Cemetery, Lancaster. Visitation will be held on Thursday, June 3, 2004, from 4 p.m. until 8 p.m. at the SCHWARTZ FUNERAL HOME in Lancaster, where a 4 p.m. parish Scripture service will be held.

Children of Dorothy Schollmeyer and Raymond N. Nihles

Raymond N. Nihles

M, d. 24 August 1987
Life EventDateDescription
Marriage21 October 1930Raymond N. Nihles married Dorothy Schollmeyer, daughter of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra, on 21 October 1930.
Death24 August 1987Raymond N. Nihles died on 24 August 1987.

Children of Raymond N. Nihles and Dorothy Schollmeyer

Marie Schollmeyer

F, b. circa 1913, d. 24 July 1966
Father*William C. Schollmeyer b. 1877, d. 1970
Mother*Martha Vondra b. 1887, d. 1963
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Wallenhorst.
Life EventDateDescription
Birthcirca 1913Marie Schollmeyer was born circa 1913 at Wisconsin.
She was the daughter of William C. Schollmeyer and Martha Vondra.
Death24 July 1966Marie Schollmeyer died on 24 July 1966.

Robert N. Nihles

M, d. before 2016
Father*Raymond N. Nihles d. 24 Aug 1987
Mother*Dorothy Schollmeyer b. 5 Mar 1910, d. 2 Jun 2004
Life EventDateDescription
Robert N. Nihles was the son of Raymond N. Nihles and Dorothy Schollmeyer.
Deathbefore 2016Robert N. Nihles died before 2016.