King William I of Scotland

M, b. 1143, d. 4 December 1214
Father*Henry of Scotland b. 1114, d. 1152
Mother*Ada de Warenne b. c 1122, d. 1178
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationKing William I of Scotland was also known as de Huntingdon.
     William I (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric; Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), known as the Lion or Garbh, "the Rough", [1] (1142/1143 – 4 December 1214) reigned as King of Scots from 1165 to 1214. His reign was the second longest in Scottish history before the Act of Union with England in 1707, (James VI's was the longest 1567–1625). He became King following his brother Malcolm IV's death on 9 December 1165 and was crowned on 24 December 1165.

In contrast to his deeply religious, frail brother, William was powerfully built, redheaded, and headstrong. He was an effective monarch whose reign was marred by his ill-fated attempts to regain control of Northumbria from the Normans.

Traditionally, William is credited with founding Arbroath Abbey, the site of the later Declaration of Arbroath. He was not known as "The Lyon" during his own lifetime, and the sobriquet did not relate to his tenacious character or his military prowess. William adopted the use of the Lion Rampant by his right to do so under the law of Heraldry.

The title "Lion" was attached to him because of his flag or standard, a red lion rampant (with a forked tail) on a yellow background. This (with the addition of a 'double tressure fleury counter-fleury' border) went on to become the Royal standard of Scotland, still used today but quartered with those of England and of Ireland. It became attached to him because the chronicler Fordun called him the "Lion of Justice".

William also inherited the title of Earl of Northumbria in 1152. However he had to give up this title to King Henry II of England in 1157. This caused trouble after William became king, since he spent a lot of effort trying to regain Northumbria.

William was a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173–1174 against Henry II. In 1174, at the Battle of Alnwick, during a raid in support of the revolt, William recklessly charged the English troops himself, shouting, "Now we shall see which of us are good knights!" He was unhorsed and captured by Henry's troops led by Ranulf de Glanvill and taken in chains to Newcastle, then Northampton, and then transferred to Falaise in Normandy. Henry then sent an army to Scotland and occupied it. As ransom and to regain his kingdom, William had to acknowledge Henry as his feudal superior and agree to pay for the cost of the English army's occupation of Scotland by taxing the Scots. This he did by signing the Treaty of Falaise. He was then allowed to return to Scotland. In 1175 he swore fealty to Henry II at York Castle.

The Treaty of Falaise remained in force for the next fifteen years. Then Richard the Lionheart, needing money to take part in the Third Crusade, agreed to terminate it in return for 10,000 silver marks.

William is recorded in 1206 as having cured a case of Scrofula by his touching and blessing a child with the ailment whilst at York.[2] William died in Stirling in 1214 and lies buried in Arbroath Abbey. His son, Alexander II, succeeded him as king, reigning from 1214 to 1250.1

Children of King William I of Scotland and Isabel Avenal

Children of King William I of Scotland and Ermengarde de Beaumont


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Richard Avenal

M, b. circa 1117, d. after 1180
Father*William Avenal b. c 1080, d. a 1130
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationRichard Avenal was also known as de Avenell.
Name VariationRichard Avenal was also known as Robert.
  • Richard Avenal married Sibyl (?).
  • Richard Avenal was born circa 1117.
  • He was the son of William Avenal.
  • Richard Avenal died after 1180.

Child of Richard Avenal and Sibyl (?)

Sibyl (?)

F, b. circa 1120
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Avenal.

Child of Sibyl (?) and Richard Avenal

Everard De Ros

M, d. 1183
Father*Robert De Ros
Mother*Sibyl de Valognes
     Lord of Helmsley.

Children of Everard De Ros and Roese de Trussebut

Roese de Trussebut

Father*William de Trussebut
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationRoese de Trussebut was also known as Trusbut.
Married NameHer married name was De Ros.

Children of Roese de Trussebut and Everard De Ros

William de Trussebut

Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationWilliam de Trussebut was also known as Trusbut.

Child of William de Trussebut

Henry of Scotland

M, b. 1114, d. 1152
Father*King David I of Scotland b. c 1085, d. 24 May 1153
Mother*Maud of Northumbria b. 1074, d. 1130
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationHenry of Scotland was also known as de Huntingdon.
     Henry of Scotland (Eanric mac Dabíd, 1114 – 12 June 1152) was a Prince of Scotland, heir to the Kingdom of Alba. He was also Earl of Northumberland and Earl of the Honour of Huntingdon and Northampton.

He was the son of King David I of Scotland and Maud, 2nd Countess of Huntingdon. His maternal grandparents were Waltheof, Earl of Northumbria and Huntingdon, (beheaded 1075) and his spouse Judith of Lens.

Henry was named after his uncle, King Henry I of England who had married his paternal aunt Edith of Scotland (the name Edith gallicised as Matilda after becoming Queen consort in 1100). He had three sons, two of whom became King of Scotland, and a third whose descendants were to prove critical in the later days of the Scottish royal house. He also had three daughters.

His eldest son became King of Scots as Malcolm IV in 1153. Henry's second son became king in 1165 on the death of his brother, reigning as William I. Both in their turn inherited the title of Earl of Huntingdon. His third son, David also became Earl of Huntingdon. It is from the 8th Earl that all Kings of Scotland after Margaret, Maid of Norway claim descent.

On Henry's death, the Earldom passed to his half-brother Simon II de Senlis.

Henry married Ada de Warenne, the daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (d.1138), and Elizabeth of Vermandois, daughter of Hugh of Vermandois, The Great.1

Children of Henry of Scotland and Ada de Warenne


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Ada de Warenne

F, b. circa 1122, d. 1178
Father*William II de Warenne d. 1138
Mother*Elizabeth of Vermandois b. c 1081, d. 13 Feb 1131
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAda de Warenne was also known as Adelaide.
Married Name1139As of 1139,her married name was de Huntingdon.
     Ada de Warenne or Adeline de Varenne (c. 1120 – 1178) was the Anglo-Norman wife of Henry of Scotland, Earl of Northumbria and Earl of Huntingdon. She was the daughter of William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey by Elizabeth of Vermandois, and a great-granddaughter of Henry I of France. She became mother to two Kings of Scots, Malcolm the Maiden and William the Lion.

Ada and Henry were married in England in 1139 [1] . As part of her marriage settlement, the new Countess Ada was granted the privileges of Haddington, amongst others in East Lothian. Previously the seat of a thanage Haddington is said to be the first Royal burgh in Scotland, created by Countess Ada's father-in-law, David I of Scotland, who held it along with the church and a mill.[2]

In close succession both her husband and King David died, in 1152 and 1153 respectively. Following the death of Henry, who was buried at Kelso Abbey, King David arranged for his grandson to succeed him, and at Scone on May 27, 1153, the twelve year old was declared Malcolm IV, King of Scots. Following his coronation, Malcolm installed his brother William as Earl of Northumbria (although this county was "restored" to King Henry II of England by Malcolm in 1157 [3]), and the young dowager-Countess retired to her lands at Haddington.

On Thursday December 9, 1165 [4] King Malcolm died at the age of 25 without issue. His mother had at that time been attempting to arrange a marriage between him and Constance, daughter of Conan III, Duke of Brittany, but Malcolm died before the wedding could be celebrated.[5]. One of Ada's daughters, Margaret, was married twice:

(1) 1160, Conan IV, Duke of Brittany, Earl of Richmond (d.1171)
(2) Humphrey III de Bohun of Trowbridge, Wiltshire, Hereditary Constable of England [6].
Following his brother's death Ada's younger son William became King of Scots at the age of twenty two. William the Lion was to become the longest serving King of Scots until the Union of the Crowns in 1603.

Religious houses were established in Haddington at an early date. They came to include the Blackfriars (who came into Scotland in 1219) and most notably the Church of the Greyfriars, or Minorites (came into Scotland in the reign of Alexander II), which would become famous as "Lucerna Laudoniae"- The Lamp of Lothian, the toft of land upon which it stands being granted by King David I of Scotland to the Prior of St. Andrews (to whom the patronage of the church of Haddington belonged). David I also granted to the monks of Dunfermline "unam mansuram" in Haddington, as well as to the monks of Haddington a full toft "in burgo meo de Hadintun, free of all custom and service."[7]

Ada devoted her time to good works, improving the lot of the Church at Haddington, where she resided. Countess Ada gave lands to the south and west of the River Tyne near to the only crossing of the river for miles, to found a Convent of Cistercian Nuns ("white nuns" [8]) dedicated to St. Mary, in what was to become the separate Burgh of Nungate, the extant remains are still to be seen in the ruined parish church of St. Martin. The nunnery she endowed with the lands of Begbie, at Garvald and Keith Marischal amongst other temporal lands. Miller, however, states that she only "founded and richly endowed a nunnery at the Abbey of Haddington" and that "Haddington, as demesne of the Crown, reverted to her son William the Lion upon her death".[2]1

Children of Ada de Warenne and Henry of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

William II de Warenne

M, d. 1138
Father*William de Warenne d. 1088
Mother*Gundred (?) d. 27 May 1085
     William de Warenne, 2nd Earl of Surrey (died 1138), was the son of William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey and his first wife Gundred. He is more often referred to as Earl Warenne or Earl of Warenne than as Earl of Surrey.

In January 1091, William assisted Hugh of Grantmesnil (d.1094) in his defense of Courcy against the forces of Robert de Belleme and Duke Robert [1].

Sometime around 1093 he tried to marry Matilda (or Edith), daughter of king Malcolm III of Scotland. She instead married Henry I of England, and this may be the cause of William's great dislike of Henry I, which was to be his apparent motivator in the following years.

He accompanied Robert Curthose (Duke Robert) in his 1101 invasion of England, and afterwards lost his English lands and titles and was exiled to Normandy[2]. There he complained to Curthose that he expended great effort on the duke's behalf and had in return lost most of his possessions. Curthose's return to England in 1103 was apparently made to convince his brother to restore William's earldom. This was successful, though Curthose had to give up all he had received after the 1101 invasion, and subsequently William was loyal to Henry.

To further insure William's loyalty Henry considered marrying him to one of his many illegitimate daughters. He was however dissuaded by Archbishop Anselm of Canterbury, for any of the daughters would have been within the prohibited degrees of consanguinity. The precise nature of the consanguineous relationship Anselm had in mind has been much debated, but it is most likely he was referring to common descent from the father of duchess Gunnor.

William was one of the commanders on Henry's side (against Robert Curthose) at the Battle of Tinchebray in 1106. Afterwards, with his loyalty thus proven, he became more prominent in Henry's court.

In 1110, Curthose's son William Clito escaped along with Helias of Saint-Saens, and afterwards Warenne received the forfeited Saint-Saens lands, which were very near his own in upper Normandy. By this maneuver king Henry further assured his loyalty, for the successful return of Clito would mean at the very least Warenne's loss of this new territory.

He fought at the Battle of Bremule in 1119 [3], and was at Henry's deathbed in 1135.

William's death is recorded as 11-May-1138 in the register of Lewes priory and he was buried with his father at the chapter-house there.

In 1118 William acquired the royal-blooded bride he desired when married Elizabeth de Vermandois. She was a daughter of count Hugh of Vermandois, a son of Henry I of France, and was the widow of Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester.

By Elizabeth he had three sons and two daughters.1 Earl of Surrey.

Children of William II de Warenne and Elizabeth of Vermandois


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_2nd_Earl_of_Surrey.

Elizabeth of Vermandois

F, b. circa 1081, d. 13 February 1131
Father*Count Hugh I of Vermandois b. 1053, d. 18 Oct 1101
Mother*Adelaide of Vermandois b. 1062, d. 1122
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationElizabeth of Vermandois was also known as de Vermandois.
Name VariationElizabeth of Vermandois was also known as Isabel.
Married Name1096As of 1096,her married name was de Beaumont.
Married Name1118As of 1118,her married name was de Warenne.
     Elizabeth of Vermandois, or Elisabeth or Isabel de Vermandois (ca. 1081 – 13 February 1131), was a niece of Philip I of France who was twice married to influential Anglo-Norman magnates.

Elizabeth of Vermandois was the third daughter of Hugh Magnus and Adelaide of Vermandois, and as such represented both the Capetian line of her paternal grandfather Henry I of France, and the Carolingian ancestry of her maternal grandfather Herbert IV of Vermandois. Her father was a younger brother of Philip I of France.1

Children of Elizabeth of Vermandois and Robert de Beaumont

Children of Elizabeth of Vermandois and William II de Warenne


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,

Count Hugh I of Vermandois

M, b. 1053, d. 18 October 1101
Father*King Henry I of France b. 4 May 1008, d. 4 Aug 1060
Mother*Anne of Kiev b. c 1028, d. 1075
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationCount Hugh I of Vermandois was also known as Magnus.
Name VariationCount Hugh I of Vermandois was also known as de Vermandois.
Name VariationCount Hugh I of Vermandois was also known as of France.
     Count of Vermandois. Hugh I (1053 – October 18, 1101), called Magnus or the Great, was a younger son of Henry I of France and Anne of Kiev and younger brother of Philip I. He was in his own right Count of Vermandois, but an ineffectual leader and soldier, great only in his boasting. Indeed, Steven Runciman is certain that his nickname Magnus (greater or elder), applied to him by William of Tyre, is a copyist's error, and should be Minus (younger), referring to Hugh as younger brother of the King of France.

In early 1096 Hugh and Philip began discussing the First Crusade after news of the Council of Clermont reached them in Paris. Although Philip could not participate, as he had been excommunicated, Hugh was said to have been influenced to join the Crusade after an eclipse of the moon on February 11, 1096.

That summer Hugh's army left France for Italy, where they would cross the Adriatic Sea into territory of the Byzantine Empire, unlike the other Crusader armies who were travelling by land. On the way, many of the soldiers led by fellow Crusader Emicho joined Hugh's army after Emicho was defeated by the Hungarians, whose land he had been pillaging. Hugh crossed the Adriatic from Bari in Southern Italy, but many of his ships were destroyed in a storm off the Byzantine port of Dyrrhachium.

Hugh and most of his army was rescued and escorted to Constantinople, where they arrived in November of 1096. Prior to his arrival, Hugh sent an arrogant, insulting letter to Eastern Roman Emperor Alexius I Comnenus, according to the Emperor's biography by his daughter (the Alexiad), demanding that Alexius meet with him:

"Know, O King, that I am King of Kings, and superior to all, who are under the sky. You are now permitted to greet me, on my arrival, and to receive me with magnificence, as befits my nobility."[1]
Alexius was already wary of the armies about to arrive, after the unruly mob led by Peter the Hermit had passed through earlier in the year. Alexius kept Hugh in custody in a monastery until Hugh swore an oath of vassalage to him.

After the Crusaders had successfully made their way across Seljuk territory and, in 1098, captured Antioch, Hugh was sent back to Constantinople to appeal for reinforcements from Alexius. Alexius was uninterested, however, and Hugh, instead of returning to Antioch to help plan the siege of Jerusalem, went back to France. There he was scorned for not having fulfilled his vow as a Crusader to complete a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and Pope Paschal II threatened to excommunicate him. He joined the minor Crusade of 1101, but was wounded in battle with the Turks in September, and died of his wounds in October in Tarsus.1

Children of Count Hugh I of Vermandois and Adelaide of Vermandois


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation,,_Count_of_Vermandois.

William Avenal

M, b. circa 1080, d. after 1130
  • William Avenal was born circa 1080.
  • He died after 1130.

Child of William Avenal

Robert De Ros


Child of Robert De Ros and Sibyl de Valognes

Sibyl de Valognes

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Ros.

Child of Sibyl de Valognes and Robert De Ros

Joan De Ros

F, b. circa 1156
Father*Everard De Ros d. 1183
Mother*Roese de Trussebut
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Meynell.

Christian Bertram

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Ros.

Child of Christian Bertram and Robert De Ros

Robert De Ros

M, d. before 20 April 1274
Father*Robert De Ros b. 1206, d. 1269
Mother*Christian Bertram

Margaret de Brus

F, b. 1218, d. before 30 January 1307
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was De Ros.

William De Ros

Father*William De Ros b. c 1192, d. 1264
Mother*Lucy Fitzpiers b. c 1196, d. c 1266

Lucy De Ros

F, b. circa 1230, d. after 1279
Father*William De Ros b. c 1192, d. 1264
Mother*Lucy Fitzpiers b. c 1196, d. c 1266
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namecirca 1250As of circa 1250,her married name was de Kyme.

Child of Lucy De Ros and William de Kyme

Alexander De Ros

M, b. circa 1224
Father*William De Ros b. c 1192, d. 1264
Mother*Lucy Fitzpiers b. c 1196, d. c 1266

Peter De Ros

Father*William De Ros b. c 1192, d. 1264
Mother*Lucy Fitzpiers b. c 1196, d. c 1266

William de Kyme


Child of William de Kyme and Lucy De Ros

Phillip de Kyme

M, b. circa 1254
Father*William de Kyme
Mother*Lucy De Ros b. c 1230, d. a 1279

James De Ros

M, b. 1303, d. 30 September 1362
Father*Robert De Ros b. 1265, d. 3 Feb 1311
Mother*Ernberge Constable b. 1283

Children of James De Ros and Maud Bernake

Maud Bernake

F, b. 1310
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1330As of 1330,her married name was De Ros.

Children of Maud Bernake and James De Ros

James De Ros

M, b. 1347, d. 12 February 1402
Father*James De Ros b. 1303, d. 30 Sep 1362
Mother*Maud Bernake b. 1310

Child of James De Ros and Joan le Despencer

Joan le Despencer

F, b. 1367
Father*Sir Philip le Despencer b. 18 Oct 1342, d. 4 Aug 1401
Mother*Elizabeth de Tiptoft b. 1345, d. b 1 Aug 1401
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1389As of 1389,her married name was De Ros.

Child of Joan le Despencer and James De Ros

Robert De Ros

M, b. 1390, d. 1441
Father*James De Ros b. 1347, d. 12 Feb 1402
Mother*Joan le Despencer b. 1367

Children of Robert De Ros and Joan de Tilliol

Joan de Tilliol

F, b. 1399, d. 1438
Father*Sir Geoffrey de Tilliol b. 1360, d. 1400
Mother*Alice de Ireby b. 1376
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationJoan de Tilliol was also known as Filliol.
Married Name1419As of 1419,her married name was De Ros.

Children of Joan de Tilliol and Robert De Ros