William de Tosny

Father*Robert de Toeni b. c 1036, d. 1088
     Lord of Belvoir.

William Bigod

Father*Roger Bigod d. 9 Sep 1107
Mother*Adeliza de Tosny d. c 1130

Hugh Bigod

M, b. 1095, d. 1177
Father*Roger Bigod d. 9 Sep 1107
Mother*Adeliza de Tosny d. c 1130
     Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk (1095 - 1177) was born in Belvoir Castle, Leicestershire, England.

He was the second son of Roger Bigod (also known as Roger Bigot) (d. 1107), Sheriff of Norfolk, who founded the Bigod name in England. Hugh Bigod became a controversial figure in history, known for his frequent switching of loyalties and hasty reactions towards measures of authority.

Hugh inherited large estates in East Anglia on the death of his brother William, who perished without issue in the sinking of the White Ship on 26 November 1120. He succeeded his aunt Albreda – and by extension, her eldest brother Berengar – as heir both to Berengar's tenancy-in-chief in Lincolnshire and the Norman lands of Robert de Tosny of Belvoirwas. He became Constable of Norwich Castle and Governor of the City of Norwich in 1122. He enjoyed the favour of Henry I.1

Child of Hugh Bigod and Juliane de Vere


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Bigod,_1st_Earl_of_Norfolk.

Juliane de Vere

F, b. after 1105, d. circa 1199
Father*Aubrey II de Vere b. c 1080, d. 1141
Mother*Alice de Clare b. c 1077, d. 1163
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1140As of before 1140,her married name was Bigod.

Child of Juliane de Vere and Hugh Bigod

Roger Bigod

M, b. circa 1144, d. 1221
Father*Hugh Bigod b. 1095, d. 1177
Mother*Juliane de Vere b. a 1105, d. c 1199
     Roger Bigod (c. 1144/1150 – 1221) was the son of Hugh Bigod, 1st Earl of Norfolk and his first wife, Juliana de Vere. Although his father died in 1176 or 1177, Roger did not succeed to the earldom of Norfolk until 1189 for his claim had been disputed by his stepmother for her sons by Earl Hugh in the reign of Henry II. Richard I confirmed him in his earldom and other honours, and also sent him as an ambassador to France in the same year. Roger inherited his father's office as royal steward. He took part in the negotiations for the release of Richard from prison, and after the king's return to England became a justiciar.

In most of the years of the reign of King John, the earl was frequently with the king or on royal business. Yet Roger was to be one of the leaders of the baronial party which obtained John's assent to Magna Carta, and his name and that of his son and heir Hugh II appear among the twenty-five barons who were to ensure the king's adherence to the terms of that document. The pair were excommunicated by the pope in December 1215, and did not make peace with the regents of John's son Henry III until 1217.

Around Christmas 1181, Roger married Ida, apparently Ida de Tosny (or Ida de Toesny)[1], and by her had a number of children including:

Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk who married in 1206/ 1207, Maud, a daughter of William Marshal
William Bigod
Ralph Bigod
Roger Bigod
Margery, married William de Hastings
Mary Bigod, married Ralph fitz Robert[2]
Many historians, including Marc Morris have speculated that the couple had a third daughter, Alice, who married Aubrey de Vere IV,Earl of Oxford as his second wife. If so, the marriage would have been well within the bounds of consanguinity, for the couple would have been quite closely related, a daughter of the second earl of Norfolk being first cousin once removed to the second earl of Oxford.1

Children of Roger Bigod and Maud Marshal


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Bigod,_2nd_Earl_of_Norfolk.

Ida de Tosny

Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1181As of 1181,her married name was Bigod.

Aubrey II de Vere

M, b. circa 1080, d. 1141
Father*Aubrey I de Vere d. c 1112
Mother*Beatrice (?)
     Aubrey de Vere II (c. 1080-1141) was also known as "Alberic[us] de Ver". He was the second of that name in post Norman Conquest England, being the eldest surviving son of Alberic or Aubrey de Vere who had followed William the Conqueror to England in or after 1066.

Their lineage is probably Norman, possibly originally from the eponymous town of Ver/Vire in western Normandy, and were [erroneously] said to descend from Charlemagne himself through the Counts of Flanders or Guînes by later antiquarians. In fact, their connection with Guînes, in Flanders, was temporary; Aubrey de Vere III was briefly married to Beatrice, heiress to that county, from 1137 to about 1145.

Aubrey II served as sheriff of many shires and as a Justiciar under kings Henry I and Stephen.[1] King Henry I had declared the estates and office of the first master chamberlain, Robert Malet, to be forfeit, and in 1133 awarded the office of master chamberlain of England to Aubrey. The chronicler William of Malmesbury reports that Aubrey represented King Stephen in 1139, when the king had been summoned to a church council to answer for the seizure of castles held by Roger, Bishop of Salisbury. He was killed by a London mob in May, 1141, and buried in the family mausoleum, Colne Priory, Essex.

His eldest son Aubrey de Vere III, was later created Earl of Oxford, and their descendants were to hold that title and the office that came to be known as the Lord Great Chamberlain until the extinction of the male line in 1703.[2]

Aubrey II married Adeliza/Alice, daughter of Gilbert Fitz Richard of Clare. Their known children: Aubrey de Vere, 1st Earl of Oxford; Rohese de Vere, Countess of Essex, Robert; Alice "of Essex;" Geoffrey; Juliana, Countess of Norfolk; William de Vere, Bishop of Hereford; Gilbert, prior of the Knights Hospitaller in England; and an unnamed daughter who married Roger de Ramis.1

Children of Aubrey II de Vere and Alice de Clare


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aubrey_de_Vere_II

Alice de Clare

F, b. circa 1077, d. 1163
Father*Gilbert Fitz Richard b. c 1065, d. 1114
Mother*Alice de Claremont
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAlice de Clare was also known as Adeliza.
Married Namecirca 1105As of circa 1105,her married name was de Vere.

Children of Alice de Clare and Aubrey II de Vere

Aubrey I de Vere

M, d. circa 1112
  • Aubrey I de Vere married Beatrice (?).
  • Aubrey I de Vere died circa 1112.
     Aubrey (Albericus) de Vere (died circa 1112) was a tenant-in-chief of William the Conqueror in 1086 and also vassal to Geoffrey de Montbray, bishop of Coutances and to Count Alan, lord of Richmond. A much later source named his father as Alphonsus.[1] The common use of the name Albericus by the Veres in medieval England makes it impossible to say for certain if the Aubrey de Vere named in Domesday Book in 1086 holding estates in six counties is the same Aubrey de Vere who around 1111 founded Colne Priory, Essex, but it is probable.

His origins are obscure and various regions have been proposed for his birthplace. Their lineage may be Norman, possibly from the eponymous town of Ver/Vire in western Normandy, and the Veres were (erroneously) said to descend from Charlemagne through the Counts of Flanders or Guînes by later antiquarians. In fact, their connection with Guînes, in Flanders, was short-lived; his grandson Aubrey de Vere III was briefly married to Beatrice, heiress to Guînes in the early 12th century.

The only certainty is his landholding recorded in Domesday Book, where he and his unnamed wife also stand accused of some unauthorized land seizures.[2] As his spouse's name is recorded as Beatrice in 1104, she may have been his wife in 1086 and the mother of his five known sons.[3] Aubrey's estates held of the king were valued at approximately £300, putting him in roughly the middle ranks of the post-conquest barons in terms of landed wealth.[4]

More difficult to sort out are contemporary references to "Aubrey the chamberlain" and "Aubrey of Berkshire." An Aubrey was chamberlain to Queen Matilda, wife of William the Conqueror, but it is unlikely that this was Aubrey de Vere. An "Aubrey of Berkshire" was a sheriff in the early reign of Henry I; it cannot be ruled out that this was Aubrey de Vere. Aubrey de Vere I may also have served that king as a royal chamberlain, as his son and namesake Aubrey de Vere II did.

Before 1104, Aubrey's eldest son Geoffrey fell ill and was tended at Abingdon Abbey by the royal physician, Abbot Faritius. The youth recovered but suffered a relapse and was buried at the abbey. His parents founded a cell of Abingdon on land they donated: Colne Priory, Essex. Within a few years, Aubrey and his son William joined that community. Aubrey died soon after taking the Benedictine habit, William passing away not long after his father. Both were buried at the priory, establishing it as the Vere family mausoleum.[5] His heir was Aubrey de Vere II.

Besides Geoffrey, Aubrey II, and William mentioned above, his sons included Roger and Robert.[6]1

Child of Aubrey I de Vere and Beatrice (?)


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aubrey_de_Vere_I

Beatrice (?)

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Vere.

Child of Beatrice (?) and Aubrey I de Vere

Gilbert Fitz Richard

M, b. circa 1065, d. 1114
Father*Richard fitz Gilbert b. c 1030, d. 1091
Mother*Rohese Giffard b. c 1034, d. a 1113
     Gilbert Fitz Richard d. 1114/7 was son and eventual heir of Richard Fitz Gilbert of Clare, and heiress Rohese Giffard. He succeeded to his father's possessions in England in 1091; his brother, Roger Fitz Richard, inherited his father's lands in Normandy. Earl Gilbert's inheritance made him one of the wealthiest magnates in early twelfth-century England.

Gilbert may have been present at the suspicious death of William II in the New Forest in 1100. He was granted lands and the Lordship of Cardigan by Henry I, including Cardigan Castle. He founded the Cluniac priory at Stoke-by-Clare, Suffolk.

He married Adeliza/Alice de Claremont, daughter of Hugh, Count of Clermont, and Margaret de Roucy. She remarried a de Montmorency after his death. They had children:

Walter de Clare, d. 1149
Adelize/Alice de Clare, d. 1163, m. (ca. 1105), Aubrey II de Vere, son of Aubrey I de Vere and Beatrice. She had 9 children and in her widowhood was a corrodian at St. Osyth's, Chich, Essex.
Margaret de Clare, d. 1185, m. (ca. 1108), Sir William de Montfitchet, Lord of Stanstead Mountfitchet.
Baldwin Fitz Gilbert de Clare, Lord of Bourne, d. 1154, m. Adeline de Rollos.
Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, d. 1136
Hervey de Clare
Gilbert Fitz Gilbert de Clare, d. 1148, 1st Earl of Pembroke
Rohese de Clare, d. 1149, m. (ca. 1130), Baderon of Monmouth.1

Children of Gilbert Fitz Richard and Alice de Claremont


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gilbert_Fitz_Richard

Alice de Claremont

Father*Hugh de Claremont
Mother*Margaret de Roucy
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAlice de Claremont was also known as Adeliza.
Married NameHer married name was Fitz Richard.
Married NameHer married name was de Montmorency.

Children of Alice de Claremont and Gilbert Fitz Richard

Margaret de Roucy

Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Claremont.

Child of Margaret de Roucy and Hugh de Claremont

Hugh de Claremont


Child of Hugh de Claremont and Margaret de Roucy

Aubrey III de Vere

M, b. circa 1115, d. December 1194
Father*Aubrey II de Vere b. c 1080, d. 1141
Mother*Alice de Clare b. c 1077, d. 1163
     Aubrey de Vere III (c. 1115-Dec. 1194) was created Earl of Oxford by the empress Matilda in July 1141. He had inherited the barony of Hedingham on the death of his father Aubrey de Vere II in May 1141, when he was already Count of Guînes by right of his wife Beatrice. In July 1141 he was granted an earldom by the Empress Matilda, and was confirmed as the first earl of Oxford by her son King Henry II of England. On the annulment of his first marriage, between 1144-46, he lost Guînes. Earl Aubrey was little involved in national political affairs after this period. His attempt to divorce his third wife, Agnes of Essex, was a celebrated marriage case that Agnes appealed successfully to Pope Alexander III. In 1153 he was present with King Stephen's army at the siege of Wallingford and attested at the Treaty of Wallingford, finally signed at Westminster. Two of his sons by Agnes, Aubrey IV and Robert, became earls of Oxford. Robert, the third earl, was one of the 25 rebel barons who were to hold King John to the terms of Magna Carta. He was buried at the family mausoleum founded by his grandfather, Colne Priory, Essex.

Family The son of Aubrey de Vere II and Adeliza of Clare, earl Aubrey married three times. His marriage to Beatrice, heiress of Guînes, in 1137 made him count of Guînes by her right on the death of her grandfather but their marriage was annulled 1144-46. His second wife, Eufemia, died in 1153-4, leaving the earl still childless. He and his third wife, Agnes of Essex, had five children, four sons and a daughter: Aubrey, Roger, Robert, Henry, and Alice. The earl had eight siblings, outliving all but his two youngest brothers and youngest sister.

Lands From his father he inherited estates in Essex, Cambridgeshire, Suffolk, Northamptonshire, Huntingdonshire and Middlesex. These were traditionally assessed at approximately 30 knights' fees.[1]1

Children of Aubrey III de Vere and Agnes of Essex


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aubrey_de_Vere,_1st_Earl_of_Oxford.

Hugh Bigod

M, b. circa 1211, d. 1266
Father*Roger Bigod b. c 1144, d. 1221
Mother*Maud Marshal b. 1194, d. 27 Mar 1248
     Hugh Bigod (c.1211-1266) was Justiciar of England from 1258 to 1260.[1] He was a younger son of Hugh Bigod, 3rd Earl of Norfolk.

In 1258 the Provisions of Oxford established a baronial government of which Hugh's elder brother Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk was a leading member, and Hugh was appointed Chief Justiciar. He also had wardship of the Tower of London, and, briefly, of Dover Castle. But at the end of 1260 or in early 1261 he resigned these offices, apparently due to dissatisfaction with the new government. Thus in 1263 he joined the royalists, and was present on that side at the Battle of Lewes.

In 1243 Hugh married Joan de Stuteville, and together they had at least eight children. Their eldest son Roger, subsequently became Earl of Norfolk.[2] There is no contemporary evidence for the assertion, first recorded in the seventeenth century, that he had an earlier wife called Joanna Burnard (or Burnet or Burnell); if indeed a Hugh Bigod married Joanna, it probably was his father that did so.1

Child of Hugh Bigod and Joan de Stuteville


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hugh_Bigod_(Justiciar).

Joan de Stuteville

Father*Nicholas de Stuteville
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Namebefore 1240As of before 1240,her married name was Wake.
Married Name1243As of 1243,her married name was Bigod.

Child of Joan de Stuteville and Hugh Wake

Child of Joan de Stuteville and Hugh Bigod

Roger Bigod

M, b. circa 1245, d. before 6 December 1306
Father*Hugh Bigod b. c 1211, d. 1266
Mother*Joan de Stuteville
     Roger Bigod (c. 1245 – bf. 6 December 1306), was 5th Earl of Norfolk.

He was the son of Hugh Bigod (Justiciar), and succeeded his uncle, Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk as earl in 1270.

This earl is the hero of a famous altercation with Edward I in 1297, which arose out of the king's command that Bigod should serve against the king of France in Gascony, while he went to Flanders. The earl asserted that by the tenure of his lands he was only compelled to serve across the seas in the company of the king himself, whereupon Edward said, "By God, earl, you shall either go or hang," to which Bigod replied, "By the same oath, O king, I will neither go nor hang."[1]

The earl gained his point, and after Edward had left for France he and Humphrey de Bohun, Earl of Hereford, prevented the collection of an aid for the war and forced Edward to confirm the charters in this year and again in 1301. William Stubbs says Bigod and Bohun "are but degenerate sons of mighty fathers; greater in their opportunities than in their patriotism."[2]

The earl had done good service for the King in the past. In August 1282, for instance, contemporary accounts record Bigod "going to Wales on the king's service." In his absence in Ireland, Bigod had sent letters nominating Reginald Lyvet and William Cadel to act as his attorney in Ireland for the year.[3] Some scholars have wondered how English lords like Bigod and the de Clares kept such tight hold on their Irish lands during a time when the English grip on Ireland was starting to fade. Apparently part of the secret was delegation of authority, as in this case by the earl to his lieutenants Lyvet and Cadel.[4][5]

Roger married first Alina Basset, daughter of the justiciar Philip Basset (and widow of Hugh Despenser), and secondly Alice d'Avesnes, daughter of John II d'Avesnes, count of Hainaut.

In 1302 the elderly and childless Bigod surrendered his earldom to the king and received it back entailed to the heirs of his body. This had the effect of disinheriting his brother John, and so, when the earl died without issue in December 1306, his title became extinct and his estates reverted to the crown, and were eventually bestowed on Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk.[6]1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Bigod,_5th_Earl_of_Norfolk.

Roger Bigod

M, b. circa 1209, d. 1270
Father*Roger Bigod b. c 1144, d. 1221
Mother*Maud Marshal b. 1194, d. 27 Mar 1248
     Roger Bigod (c. 1209 – 1270), was 4th Earl of Norfolk and Marshal of England.

He was the son of Hugh Bigod, and Matilda, a daughter of William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke and Marshal of England. After the death of his father in 1225 Roger became the ward of William Longespée, 3rd Earl of Salisbury. After his marriage to Isabella, daughter of William the Lion, King of Scotland, he was a ward of his new brother-in-law, Alexander II of Scotland until 1228, when, although still under-age, he succeeded to his father's estates (including Framlingham Castle). He did not, however, receive his father's title until 1233.

After the death without male heirs of the last of his mother's brothers, Roger obtained the office of Marshal of England in 1246. With his younger brother Hugh Bigod (Justiciar), he was prominent among the barons who wrested the control of the government from the hands of Henry III and assisted Simon de Montfort, in what became the Second Barons' War.

Roger had no children, and was succeeded by his nephew, also named Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roger_Bigod,_4th_Earl_of_Norfolk.

King Henry II of England

M, b. 5 March 1133, d. 6 July 1189
Father*Geoffrey V of Anjou b. 24 Aug 1113, d. 7 Sep 1151
Mother*Empress Matilda of England b. c 7 Feb 1102, d. 10 Sep 1167
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationKing Henry II of England was also known as Plantagenet.
     Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. Henry, the great-grandson of William the Conqueror, was the first of the House of Plantagenet to rule England. Henry was the first to use the title "King of England" (as opposed to "King of the English").

He is also known as Henry Curtmantle and Henry Fitz-Empress.

Henry II was born in Le Mans, France, on 5 March 1133.[1] His father, Geoffrey V of Anjou (Geoffrey Plantagenet, son of Fulk of Jerusalem), was Count of Anjou and Count of Maine. His mother, Empress Matilda, was a claimant to the English throne as the daughter of Henry I (1100–1135), son of William The Conqueror, Duke of Normandy. His own claim to the throne was strengthened by his descent from both the English Saxon kings and the kings of Scotland through his maternal grandmother Matilda of Scotland, whose father was Malcolm III of Scotland and whose mother was Margaret of Wessex (Saint Margaret of Scotland), grand-daughter of Edmund Ironside.

He spent his childhood in his father's land of Anjou. At the age of nine, Robert of Gloucester took him to England, where he received education from Master Matthew at Bristol, with the assistance of Adelard of Bath and possibly Geoffrey of Monmouth. In 1144, he was returned to Normandy where his education was continued by William of Conches.[2]

On 18 May 1152, at Poitiers,[3] at the age of 19, Henry married Eleanor of Aquitaine. The wedding was "without the pomp or ceremony that befitted their rank,"[4] partly because only two months previously Eleanor's marriage to Louis VII of France had been annulled. Their relationship, always stormy, eventually disintegrated: after Eleanor encouraged her children to rebel against their father in 1173, Henry had her placed under house arrest, where she remained for fifteen years.[5]1

Children of King Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_ii_of_england

Ermengarde de Beaumont

F, b. circa 1170, d. 12 February 1233
Father*Richard I de Beaumont
Mother*Constance FitzRoy
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1186As of 1186,her married name was of Scotland.
     Ermengarde de Beaumont was Queen Consort of the Kingdom of Scotland.

Ermengarde was born c. 1170 to Richard I, Viscount de Beaumont and his wife Constance FitzRoy, illegitimate daughter of Henry I of England.

She married William I of Scotland at Woodstock Palace on 5 September 1186. They had four children:

Margaret of Scotland (1193 - 1259). Married Hubert de Burgh, 1st Earl of Kent.
Isabella of Scotland (1195 - 1253). Married Roger Bigod, 4th Earl of Norfolk.
Alexander II of Scotland (1198 - 1249).
Marjorie of Scotland (1200 - 1244). Married Gilbert Marshal, 4th Earl of Pembroke.
She died on 12 February 1233/1234, and was buried at Balmerino Abbey, Fife.1

Children of Ermengarde de Beaumont and King William I of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ermengarde_de_Beaumont

Richard I de Beaumont


Child of Richard I de Beaumont and Constance FitzRoy

Constance FitzRoy

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was de Beaumont.

Child of Constance FitzRoy and Richard I de Beaumont

Henry I of England

M, b. circa 1068, d. 1 December 1135
Father*William I of England b. c 1027, d. 9 Sep 1087
Mother*Matilda of Flanders b. c 1031, d. 2 Nov 1083
     Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. He was called Beauclerc for his scholarly interests and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the administrative and legislative machinery of the time.

Henry's reign is noted for its political opportunism. His succession was confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which formed a basis for subsequent challenges to rights of kings and presaged Magna Carta, which subjected the King to law.

The rest of Henry's reign was filled with judicial and financial reforms. He established the biannual Exchequer to reform the treasury. He used itinerant officials to curb abuses of power at the local and regional level, garnering the praise of the people. The differences between the English and Norman populations began to break down during his reign and he himself married a daughter of the old English royal house. He made peace with the church after the disputes of his brother's reign, but he could not smooth out his succession after the disastrous loss of his eldest son William in the wreck of the White Ship. His will stipulated that he was to be succeeded by his daughter, the Empress Matilda, but his stern rule was followed by a period of civil war known as the Anarchy.1

Children of Henry I of England and Isabel Beaumont

Child of Henry I of England

Children of Henry I of England and Lady Sybilla Corbet

Children of Henry I of England and Princess Matilda of Scotland


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henry_I_of_England

Isabel Hedwig of England

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Mother*Isabel Beaumont b. c 1102, d. c 1172

Matilda FitzRoy

Father*Henry I of England b. c 1068, d. 1 Dec 1135
Mother*Isabel Beaumont b. c 1102, d. c 1172
     Maud, Abbess of Montivilliers was a natural daughter of Henry I of England and his young mistress Isabel de Beaumont (ca 1102 - ca 1172), herself a sister of Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester.

Born Matilda Fitzroy, her maternal grandparents were Robert de Beaumont, 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth of Vermandois. She was a half-sister of Richard "Strongbow" de Clare, her mother's son through a marriage to Gilbert de Clare, 1st Earl of Pembroke, and of the Empress Matilda, who apparently valued her company and advice. Perhaps due to their closeness, Matilda or "Maud" is called the Sister of the Empress Matilda.

She was the abbess at the Abbey Church of Notre-Dame, Montivilliers, and for that reason is best known as Maud of Montivilliers.1


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matilda_FitzRoy

Robert de Beaumont

M, b. 1104, d. 5 April 1168
Father*Robert de Beaumont b. 1049, d. 5 Jun 1118
Mother*Elizabeth of Vermandois b. c 1081, d. 13 Feb 1131
     Robert de Beaumont, 2nd Earl of Leicester (1104 – 5 April 1168) was Justiciar of England 1155-1168.

The surname "de Beaumont" is given him by genealogists. The only known contemporary surname applied to him is "Robert son of Count Robert". Henry Knighton, the fourteenth-century chronicler notes him as Robert "Le Bossu" (meaning "Robert the Hunchback" in French).

Robert was an English nobleman of Norman-French ancestry. He was the son of Robert de Beaumont, Count of Meulan and 1st Earl of Leicester and Elizabeth de Vermandois. He was the twin brother of Waleran de Beaumont. There is no knowing whether they were identical or fraternal twins, but the fact that they are remarked on by contemporaries as twins indicates that they probably were in fact identical.

The two brothers, Robert and Waleran, were adopted into the royal household shortly after their father's death in June 1118 (upon which Robert inherited his father's second titles of Earl of Leicester). Their lands on either side of the Channel were committed to a group of guardians, led by their stepfather, William earl of Warenne or Surrey. They accompanied King Henry I to Normandy, to meet with Pope Callixtus II in 1119, when the king incited them to debate philosophy with the cardinals. Both twins were literate, and Abingdon Abbey later claimed to have been Robert's school, but though this is possible, its account is not entirely trustworthy. A surviving treatise on astronomy (British Library ms Royal E xxv) carries a dedication "to Earl Robert of Leicester, that man of affairs and profound learning, most accomplished in matters of law" who can only be this Robert. On his death he left his own psalter to the abbey he founded at Leicester, which was still in its library in the late fifteenth century. The existence of this indicates that like many noblemen of his day, Robert followed the canonical hours in his chapel.1

Children of Robert de Beaumont and Amica de Gael


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_de_Beaumont,_2nd_Earl_of_Leicester.

Isabella of Scotland

F, b. 1195, d. 1253
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married NameHer married name was Bigod.

Margaret of Scotland

F, b. 1193, d. 1259
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Married Name1221As of 1221,her married name was de Burgh.

Child of Margaret of Scotland and Hubert de Burgh

Alexander II of Scotland

M, b. 1198, d. 1249
Father*King William I of Scotland b. 1143, d. 4 Dec 1214
Mother*Ermengarde de Beaumont b. c 1170, d. 12 Feb 1233
Name TypeDateDescription
Name VariationAlexander II of Scotland was also known as King Alexander II of Scots.
     Alexander II (Mediaeval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Uilliam; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Uilleim) (24 August 1198 – 6 July 1249), King of Scots, was the only son of the Scottish king William the Lion and Ermengarde of Beaumont. He was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and spent time in England (John of England knighted him at Clerkenwell Priory in 1213) before succeeding to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214, being crowned at Scone on 6 December the same year.

The year after his accession the clans Meic Uilleim and MacHeths, inveterate enemies of the Scottish crown, broke into revolt; but loyalist forces speedily quelled the insurrection.

In the same year Alexander joined the English barons in their struggle against John of England, and led an army into the Kingdom of England in support of their cause. The Scottish Army of Alexander II reached the south coast of England at the port of Dover awaiting the arrival of the French Army under the Dauphin. Alexander and the Dauphin, with their forces joined the English barons, when they signed Magna Carta. But King John died and the Pope and the English aristocracy changed their attitude, which meant the French army returned home shortly after taking London and the Scottish army returned to Scotland. Peace between John's youthful son Henry III of England and the French prince Louis VIII of France and Alexander followed.

Diplomacy further strengthened the reconciliation by the marriage of Alexander to Henry's sister Joan of England on 18 June or 25 June 1221.

The next year marked the subjection of the hitherto semi-independent district of Argyll. Royal forces crushed a revolt in Galloway in 1235 without difficulty; nor did an invasion attempted soon afterwards by its exiled leaders meet with success. Soon afterwards a claim for homage from Henry of England drew forth from Alexander a counter-claim to the northern English counties. The two kingdoms, however, settled this dispute by a compromise in 1237. This was the Treaty of York which defined the boundary between the two kingdoms as running between the Solway Firth (in the west) and the mouth of the River Tweed (in the east).

Joan died in March, 1238 in Essex, and in the following year, 1239, Alexander remarried. His second wife was Marie de Coucy. The marriage took place on 15 May 1239, and produced one son, the future Alexander III, born in 1241.

A threat of invasion by Henry in 1243 for a time interrupted the friendly relations between the two countries; but the prompt action of Alexander in anticipating his attack, and the disinclination of the English barons for war, compelled him to make peace next year at Newcastle. Alexander now turned his attention to securing the Western Isles, which still owed a nominal allegiance to Norway. He successively attempted negotiations and purchase, but without success. Alexander next attempted to persuade Ewen, the son of Duncan, Lord of Argyll, to sever his allegiance to Haakon IV of Norway. Ewen rejected these attempts, and Alexander sailed forth to compel him.

But on the way he suffered a fever at the Isle of Kerrera in the Inner Hebrides, and died there in 1249. He was buried at Melrose Abbey, Roxburghshire. His son Alexander III succeeded him as King of Scots.1

Child of Alexander II of Scotland and Marie de Coucy


  1. [S369] Encyclopedia website, by compilation, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_II_of_Scotland